Security, Sinai, Terrorism #Egypt Aug. 18 – Oct. 2, 2015 Sherifa Zuhur

3 Oct

Oct. 2 New message by #WilayatSinai:  “From #Sinai to #Somalia – #ISIS #Egypt


Oct. 2  #IS#Sinai claims it killed an #Egypt-ian “army spy” a member of the Sawarka tribe in Cairo. This is first Sinai-based claim on Cairo attack in 2015.


Oct. 2 A ban on niqab worn by instructors and professors at Cairo University is upheld by Egypt’s Mufti. (Ban on students wearing niqab was overturned some years ago) #Egypt

Sept. 30 4 terrorists killed in Alexandria – same incident as below but this report notes they were in attacks in Beheira.

Sept. 29 4 #MuslimBrotherhood killed in exchange of gunfire in #Agamy #Alexandria #Egypt Wed.

Sept. 27 Egyptian army foiled attempt by 7 militants from Gaza crossing via sea into Egypt’s Rafah city.

Sept. 27 Schools in #Rafah and #ShaykhZuwayd#Sinai postponed to 10th of October #Egypt

Sept. 27 Five #Copts injured in attacks in #Samalout and #Minya  over church construction

Sept. 26 Attack on Saturday, in Arish killed 2 of #Egypt‘s soldiers and injured 16 – roadside bomb #Sinai

Sept. 25 Nine militants killed in Zaidiya in exchange of fire with security.

They were thought to be Muslim Brotherhood members The NYT article sayd killed for connection to the attack on the Italian consulate & seems to imply they weren’t.

Sept. 23 Sinai’s Bedouin Jerken Band plays jerry cans left in the desert

Sept. 23 #Egypt‘s army seized weapons & explosives in #Giza & #Arish #counterterrorism

Sept. 23 Clashes between Egypt’s security forces and Islamist supporters in Alexandria following Eid prayers

Sept. 23 Prosecutors investigated those who were plotting to smuggle Pres. Morsi from Bourj al-Arab prison.

Sept. 23 Al Jazeera journalists were among 100 other prisoners released or released and pardoned for the Eid al-Adha

Sept. 22 Five tons of marijuana seized at Hurghada


Sept. 22 Egypt detains Khaled al-Beltagy, age 16, son of imprisoned leader Muhammad al-Beltagy

Sept. 22 Egypt has demolished 3,255 homes in the Sinai for the buffer zone according to Human Rights Watch and not given notice or reparations.

Sept 21 46 alleged Muslim Brotherhood members arrested in Egypt

Sept. 21 Egypt’s Cabinet of Ministers issued a comprehensive statement on the plan to battle terrorism in the Sinai:

Sept. 20 A bomb explodes outside the Foreign Ministry Office in Mohandesin.

Sept. 20 Pro-Muslim Brotherood figure Sharaby, (hosted by State Dept. in January and who spoke at UC Berkeley) calls on NY followers to “siege” Sisi’s hotel during UNGA visit

Sept. 20 Bio of Egypt’s new prosecutor-general Nabil Sadek

Sept. 19 #Egypt Brigadier General killed overnight in North #Sinai city of al-Arish; two others killed in IED explosion via @AssetSource

Sept. 19 IS in Sinai released a statement urging tribes to fight the army. Via Ashw_s6 – account suspended.  The statement “To the Defiant Tribes of the Sinai” is available here:

Sept. 18 A number of top al-Qaeda figures were released as part of a prisoner exchange with Iran. An Iranian kidnapped in Yemen was released for these figures which include Egyptians, Seif al-Adel, Abu Kair al-Masri and Abdullah Ahmad Abdullah and several Jordanians.

Sept. 18 #IS#Sinai published wrap of attacks in #Egypt during previoua Islamic month. Still no mention of Sep 3 IED incidents with #MFO.

Source @ZLGold.

Sept. 18 Mexico demands compensation for the Mexican tourists killed in an Egyptian military strike in the desert.

Sept. 16 145 prison inmates to be released in #Egypt for the #EidAlAdha

Sept. 16 55 militants and 2 soliders killed in ongoing Operation Martyrs’ Right in #Sinai accrdg to authorities #Egypt

Sept. 11 – unverified claims by ISIS that it targeted vehicle using advanced missiles (but others say car bomb/IED)

Sept. 11 – Militants in northern Sinai attacked civilians killing a woman & child   however same incident is reported as shelling of house kills a woman and “probably by Army” via @BigPharoah

Sept. 10 Local leader of Brotherhood’s FJP Youth Wing for Beni Suef shot dead by Egyptian police during arrest raid. Via @AssetSourceApp

Sept 10 Anti-tank & helicopter weapons acquired by #WilayatSinai – photos #Egypt #Sinai

Sept. 10 US to send an additional 75 troops to increase protection of MFO in #Sinai

Sept. 9 30 ABM militants killed, 41 captured, 3 Explosives warehouses destroyed in #Egypt army’s “Martyr Right” mil. Op in Shk Zwayed, Arish&Rafah source Hassan Sari

Sept. 9 #ISIS Terror Group Release Photos Claims Anti-Tank & Anti-Aircraft Training Courses In #Sinai (see TL)

Sept 9 More photos from Wilayat Sinai posted as Daily Life of the Mujahid

Sept 8 Egypt’s spokesman told Reuters that Egyptian troops would arrive in Yemen today.

Sept. 8 The Egyptian army announced that it had begun a major anti-militant operation “Martyrs’  “ in the north Sinai on Monday and killed 29 militants. 2 soldiers were killed.

Sept. 7 57 additional NGOs have been closed for ties with the Muslim Brotherhood

Sept. 6 The 3rd field Army Commander meets with elders of the tribes in South #Sinai.

Sept 5 Egyptian military said it had prevented the illegal immigration of 228 people – refugees

Sept. 4 On the 6 peacekeepers injured –

Sept. 4 Egypt gas pipeline bombed again last night in the northern Sinai.

Sept. 3 Six peacekeepers injured in 2 IED explosions #Sinai – 4 are Americans.  #Egypt

Sept 3 #3 terrorists killed in Sheikh Zwayed: Spokesman

Sept. 3 Article claims terrorism is spreading across Egypt https//

Sept. 2   Two IEDs exploded inside a shop reportedly belonging to a Coptic Christian in Qena, southern #Egypt

Sept. 1 Suicide bombing in al-Arish city was thwarted and the militant was killed.

Sept. 1 Video released from Wilayat Sinai (in my twitter feed)

Aug 31 #Breaking Egypt foils car bomb attack likely targeting police station in al-Arish, Sinai (via @AssetSourceApp

Aug 31 An Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis member, Ahmad Abdul Hakim of Zawya al-Hamra was killed in Cairo

Aug 31 Egypt begins building fish farms on the Gaza border – further discouraging the building of smuggling tunnels

Aug 29 How Wilayat Sinai operates via other groups within mainland Egypt

Aug. 28 Two killed in clashes with security forces in Fayoum

Aug. 28 A policeman returning from work shot and killed in Sohag

Aug 28   12 defendents given preliminary death sentences for crimes (also recruitment) for Wilayat Sinai by an Egyptian court. Six are being tried in abstentia.

Aug 27 Those involved in attack on tourist bus near #Karnak #Luxor site referred to military court #Egypt

Aug 26 Another prisoner dies in #Fayoum police station – 2nd in 3 days.  #Egypt

Aug 26 Twoolicemen who were guarding a post office in al-Arish were killed by unknown gunmen

Also see

Aug 25 Police intercept network that makes bombs and rockets

Aug 24 The number of casualties in the bombing of a police bus rose to 3 (and 27 wounded) on the Rashid-Damanour road in Behaira rose to 3

Aug 23 Abu Al-Qasim, alleged military head of Wilayat #Sinai, killed in airstrike–per anon sources in sympathetic media (?) via Zack Gold

Aug 23 A lawsuit demanding that Human Rights Watch leave Egypt was filed and accepted. Filed by a rights organization and it claims that HRW has held meetings with the Muslim Brotherhood in Qatar and in the “US Congress”

Aug 23 Egyptian security forces use teargas on striking lower-ranking police in Sharqiyya

Aug 23 Ministry of Endowments #Egypt bans any promotion of political candidates in the mosques

Aug 22 Life terms for Egypt‘s Badie and 18 Brotherhood members

Aug 22 Three Facebook users were arrested in Sohag for their support of Wilayat Sinai

Aug 22 5 terrorist killed, 18 others injured in Rafah

Aug 21 10 terrorists killed and 11 captured by Egyptian army forces in North Sinai

New round of intense Egyptian airstrikes just now, south of Rafa

Aug 21 Egypt’s Army Chief of Staff met the UK national security advisor

Aug 20 Daesh-affiliate ABM claims responsibility over Cairo blast: “in retaliation to “martyred brothers” of Arab Sharkas”

Aug 20 Wilayat Sinai claimed the bombing at the courthouse

Aug 19 4 #Palestinians kidnapped by gunmen after leaving #Rafah #Sinai #Egypt

Aug 19 Loud explosion in #Cairo was a car bomb in front of a security building and near a courthouse in Shubra al-Kheima The explosion caused 20 cars to smash and wounded 29 (most not seriously) #Egypt

Aug 19 Pres. Sisi calls for preemptive measures to discourage terrorism as 50 clerics met in a conference to discuss extremist fatwas

Aug 18 #ISIS-affiliated Wilayat Sinai claimed responsibility for an IED attack against a troop carrier that injured two near Sheikh Zuweid #Egypt

Aug 18 Egypt’s forces on high alert at Libyan border after Libyan border guards disappear

Egypt: Security, Terrorism, Sinai Update for Aug. 1 – 17, 2015

17 Aug

Aug. 17 Wilayet Sinai, claim to have targeted an army APC near a ‘gas station’ south of Sheikh Zuweid (Joe Gulhane, no source given to me – if provided will list)

Aug 17 Police officer dies from injuries in last Monday’s bombing #Egypt and #AjnadMisr
claims responsibility

Aug 17 New anti-terrorism laws in #Egypt:

Aug 17 Omar Ashour criticizes the Egyptian governments campaign in the Sinai and repression.

Aug 16 A draft law to end penalties on journalists has been revealed. How this elides with the new penalties on contradicting government sources in the antiterrorism laws is unclear.
Aug. 16 #Egypt’s Min. of Interior says it has broken up 3 #MuslimBrotherhood cells.

Aug. 16 The Egyptian military is continuing its operations near the Libyan border.

Aug 16 Online statement attributed to a group calling itself Tahrir Brigades, claims to be defected officers, claimed Barakat assassination

Aug. 16 North #Sinai court returns to #Sinai fllwing 3 mo. relocation due to terrorist
attacks. #Egypt

Aug 16 Body of Palestinian man from Rafah found near the border this morning.

Aug 15 #Rabaa protests had low turnout – some arrests; in contrast to online activism #Egypt

Aug. 15 #Russia gives #Egypt a Molniya missile corvette

Aug. 13 Egypt confiscates assets of the chairman of Juhayna for ties to the Muslim Brotherhood.

Aug. 13/Aug 12 ISIS in Egypt (Wilayat Sinai) beheaded a Croatian captive , Tomislav Salopek

Aug 12 A policeman was killed today in #Fayoum, south of Cairo, in #Egypt

Aug 11 253 sentenced in abstentia to life in prison for committing violence in Beheira

Aug 11 Badie referred to court in a new trial

Aug. 12 #Egypt Apache war helicopter strikes vehicle in Al-Kharroubah village, S. Sheikh Zwayyed, N.Sinai killing 3 Daesh-affiliate members aboard

Aug 12 Curfew hours reduced in al-#Arish #Sinai #Egypt

Aug 12 Alaa Selim (photojournalist) found dead in Abu Taweela village near Shaykh Zuwayd, circumstances unclear

Aug 11 New York Times Editorial (which has published numerous scathing critiques of Egypt’s government) wants the #MFO out of the #Sinai.

Aug 10 Ten persons were recommended to receive death sentences, so their cases go to the Grand Mufti for his opinion

Aug 10 IED blast injures 3 persons outside a court in Heliopolis

Aug 9 2 killed in clashes between security forces and group of armed men in #Suez #Egypt

Aug 9 Revolutionary Punishment group claims attack in El-Sinnuris near ‪#Fayoum‬‬ earlier today. ‪#‎Egypt‬‬

Aug 9 World’s largest container ship, the Marstel Maersk crosses the new Suez Canal

Aug 9 Policeman killed in al-Arish after a different officer in the same position was killed.

Aug 9 A bomb targeted an armored vehicle in northern Sinai killing 2 security personnel, injuring 3

Aug 8 18 militants were killed over the last 2 days’ shelling of Shaykh Zuweid and Rafah – reportedly by Apaches

Aug 7 Fears mount for the fate of the Croation hostage seized in 22 of July – interesting detail, his driver was released.

Aug 6 Raid on a farm in Sanoris in Fayoum – five are killed. A report from Aug 9 including some controversial details

Aug 6
#Egypt N.#Sinai / Army Helicopter targets 35 #Hamas terrorists in a smuggling tunnel with #Gaza

Aug 6 The new Suez Canal (which took only one year instead of five to complete) was celebrated with an inaugural ceremony.

Aug 5 ISIS affiliate (Wilayat Sinai) has threatened to kill a Croatian hostage in 48 hours.

Aug 4 Five civilians killed when their house was shelled during clashes in northern Sinai

Aug 4 Unidentified gunmen killed a policeman standing guard outside a police station in Sharqiyya

Aug. 2 Army says it has killed 88 suspected militants in the Sinai between July 20 and July 31

Aug 2 Car owned by Judge Moh. Abdullah Abbas (al-Khanka court) explodes from bomb. No injuries #Egypt

Aug 1. Egypt’s army says it has killed a leading figure in Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis

Interview with Sherifa Zuhur on Counterterrorism/COIN in Egypt and Beyond

5 Aug

I just was interviewed by journalist Yasser Khalil.  The interview will likely be available in Arabic and offered at Sahafy Online (  for outlets interested in publishing it.   A little bit of this discussion is based on my current book draft on Egypt (there is a chapter on the Sinai campaign) .

Sherifa azZuhur Arabi

Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of California, Berkeley

August 5, 2015

– What do you think about the Egypt’s strategy in fighting terrorism? Is it sufficient enough to end up the terrorism in the country?


Egypt is using a combination of counterterrorism (CT) and counterinsurgency (COIN) approaches.  It faces terrorism in the northern Sinai peninsula, but also in/near Suez and on Egypt’s mainland as well as acts of sabotage on electricity towers and assassinations of public figures such as the Chief Prosecutor, the late Hisham Barakat.    In the Sinai, Egypt’s military had to cease cooperating with the limitations prevailing under the Camp David Accords by which only civil police are to operate in zone C.  While these restrictions are lifted now, that insurgency has longstanding roots going back to 2003-2004.


Elsewhere the criminalization of terrorist groups and those engaging or calling for violence is an important aspect of the campaign.  So too, are efforts at antiterrorism (terrorism prevention) in which the roots of extremism are to be attacked by al-Azhar, and mainstream Muslim institutions, although there isn’t much agreement about the shape of such reforms.


Both CT and COIN rely on military eradication of terrorists which in turn relies on intelligence and police work.  In addition, both approaches also employ the ‘non-military’ tools of war; CT calls for developing antiterrorism programs and COIN requires bolstering of state power and appealing to local populations support the state’s objections.  These tools, or methods are informational, economic and political/diplomatic.


– Is this strategy different from the one USA uses?

These are two approaches, not one grand strategy and the US is currently, under Obama, downgrading CT and COIN efforts, but it has not successfully defined a strategy toward terrorism either in the wake of 9/11 nor today.


Egypt’s efforts reflect those of national militaries to contain terrorism in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and elsewhere, but there are some differences, for example, the above-mentioned problem of an insurgency in a hinterland where the military were initially constrained.  Also,  the Sinai extremists used the fall of president Morsi, who they also considered an apostate (and they condemned the Muslim Brotherhood for participating in Egypt’s political system) as a rallying cause and the combination of their violence and that of other groups, some allied to them on the mainland somewhat magnifies the impact of attempted violence.  Egypt’s tourism sector has been hurt by this violence along with the perception of volatility in the post-revolutionary environment, although there has been some recovery of late.  Also the jihadist movements are international, the Wilayat Sinai breakaway from the Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis allied with the Islamic State (in Iraq and Syria, i.e. ISiS) because of the propaganda (or informational) value and it has links with groups in Libya — which are therefore another threat to Egypt. The presence of the MFO (Multinational Force of Observers) in the Sinai means that there could be a threat to that body.  The alienation of the bedouin in the Sinai from the central government is another special factor to consider; this is the result of land ownership policies as well as the counterterrorist response to violence in the Sinai from 2004 – 2011.



– Both countries couldn’t end up terrorism till now, in spite of the long war against it. Why?


Terrorism is not a phenomenon that will be soon ended, nor is it sui generis.  Egypt and the United States continue to face terrorism, so too, all humans are hurt by it since it was used by the Zealots and others in ancient history.  Terrorism is a tactic, and the perpetrators have political and religiopolitical aims.  They can be discouraged from using this tactic, by the use military force and repression, and simultaneous anti-terrorism or anti-insurgency programs and actions of the state.


The previous U.S. Department of Defense name for this – the Long War – is probably an accurate name.  Al-Qa’ida as well as the ISIS, ABM, Wilayat Sinai AQAP, AQIM, Shabab etc. have a long-term grand strategy. Nonetheless,  Egypt’s battle in the Sinai with such groups is winnable —  and it is not facing a popular insurgency in the mainland, as for example existed in Vietnam.


If the Egyptian government had fought as ruthlessly as possible, then it’s possible the conflict might be a shorter one, but as Pres. Sisi himself noted, the public concern for human rights limits the use of tactics which might eradicate such groups  And admittedly, the security forces have not undergone reforms in that regard, and they are facing an enemy using extremely brutal tactics towards them and civilians who are thought to be cooperating with the Egyptian military and police.


– There are violations for human rights in both countries’ experiences in this field, is it necessary to violate human rights while fighting terrorism? How we can avoid that if it’s possible?


Yes, there are violations of human rights by both militaries and also by police in the U.S.  – use of body cameras (introduced in San Francisco & to be used in Egypt), education, enforcement of proper standards in prisoner treatment are all requisites.   It’s up to the leadership to insist on such standards in all militaries and police forces.


Some believe that human rights are violated by the use of emergency laws and military courts.


**Under Presidents Mubarak and Sadat, the use of emergency laws tended to constrain the development of democracy, however, today, nearly all countries have crafted specific terrorism laws which tend to diverge from civil procedures.   In Egypt, a big debate still exists over the “protest law” which is intended to control spontaneous and potentially violent demonstrations.  I think it is entirely reasonable to oppose extrajudicial rendition, torture, and unjust procedures as we saw in Guantanamo and at Abu Ghraib, and also to support harsh legal consequences for acts of terrorism.  The Egyptian system of criminal law differs from that in the U.S., but as far as I can see both aim to deter as well as punish offenders.  The application of emergency law within the buffer area in the Sinai, which has, for example, utilized curfews certainly seemed to be a necessity in that campaign.




– What about the privacy issues? This war made the people’s privacy is nearly zero. Is that justified and acceptable in your opinion?   **I need more clarification of this question in order to answer it



– In 1970s to 1990s Egypt was using the security solutions in fighting terrorism, it could defeat some terrorists but not terrorism. Will Egypt need more 2 decades to reach the same result?


**There is no division between “security solutions” and other solutions – let us say, “development or aid solutions.”  One cannot develop an area like the Sinai or upper Egypt if armed terrorist groups operate freely, moving to assassinate local police or officials in their homes or their vehicles, importing weapons and obtaining cash from outside of Egypt.


As stated above, “security” has to be seen holistically – it also concerns preserving the safety and security of citizens and their government.   Terrorists attack civilians and symbols of the state to try to sway other citizens into treating them as a pseudo-state (thus, the very name, Islamic State).  The Egyptian government has much to overcome, but the employment of many Sinai residents in the new Suez Canal project is a boost to security, as is the awarding of reparations to those forced to leave Rafah during the buffer operation.  Security and trust must be constructed on all fronts at the same time – through forums or meetings with the public, assurance that economic needs will be met and controls over the known security gaps – for ex. the hundreds of tunnels into Gaza or the communications between Sinai and Libyan militants.




– The terrorism is getting more brutality if we compared between the old militants (such as Al-Qaeda) and the new ones such as ISIS. What is the reason in your opinion?


In my opinion, the al-Qa’ida mother-ship group (the original group) under bin Ladin and Zawahiri learned that the use of extremely brutal tactics and sectarian attacks caused the public to hate and fear it and thus damage the long-term aims of such groups.  Bin Ladin was said to oppose attacks on the Shi`a, either because of this counter-productive response or because his neosalafist mentors coming from the Muslim Brotherhood exiles in Saudi Arabia and those they impacted did so.  al-Zawahiri opposed the attacks on Shi`a in Iraq by al-Qa’ida affiliate groups as well.


The Islamic State and Nusra in Syria and Iraq used both carrot and stick approaches, but the media tends to cover their brutal actions and focus less on other factors such as family relationships, actions of revenge and propaganda (public executions).  Like the ABM or WS in the Sinai, they count on the insecurity of the local population and the fact that it is gauging the dangers of cooperating with the state versus themselves.



– How the security sciences and the applications of those sciences developed since 1990s (especially regarding the war on terrorism)?


We should speak of philosophy, theory and practical approaches rather than “sciences.”  The study of war and conflict tends to draw on those maxims or precepts which seem to apply over time.  However, the means of war and technology have altered the applicability of such concepts.


We now possess technologically superior gaming facilities, but the best tool remains the imagination and through red-teaming to consider the most likely set of threats or scenarios and second effects resulting from actions taken.


There are therefore, some new takes on terrorism which arise from older concepts, so for example, material concerning 4th generation warfare; or the Clausewitzian notion of center(s) of gravity which, in today’s terrorist environment are diffused.   The psychological aspects of terrorism have also been studied with the aim of constructing better antiterrorist responses, or to use specific language, preventing the “slippery slope” to violence.    We now must be concerned with so-called lone wolf or sleeper attacks and the coordination of many terrorist groups outside controllable channels.


The relationship between foreign policy goals and aims to control or eradicate terrorism is also being scrutinized by those who are interested in grand strategy.



– Some opinions say that the security solutions is not enough to end up the terrorism, there is a need for intellectuals to play a rule in fighting terrorist ideas, it’s also war of thoughts.. do you agree with that?


**Yes, I agree but there is no point in constructing or insisting on one form of propaganda simply to counter another.   The intellectual war on terrorism has also faltered because we cannot promote freedom – freedom of thought and civil responsibility by accepting a vision of an Islamic society which is not free, but which merely eschews (rejects) violence against the state.


For example, the large Salafiyya Jihad movement in the Sinai are not all involved in terrorism, but they promote a conservative social vision which is unfair to some members of society (for ex. women).  In the United States, many of our Muslim organizations which claim to oppose terrorism “from a Muslim perspective” have a similar vision and therefore do not represent a true reform of the type needed.



– If you are writing a “prescription” to the world leaders to cure the earth planet from terrorism (even, to some extent), what will you write in it?


**I would say that seeing terrorism as an illness for which there is a cure is a mistake.  Remember that terrorism is merely a tactic of war.


Understanding and vigorously countering the aims and claims of terrorists with regard to the use of jihad, takfir, wala wa-l-bara, and their overall conception of a world in which Muslims should battle all others is key.


Supporting intelligence to discover the sources of arms and funding is also key.


Building confidence in a world and local communities where equal opportunities exist is most certainly key to convincing local populations to accept the authority of their own governments.


And the use of force – what you called in this interview, the security solution – is also very much a key and is going to require regional cooperation, not only between Egypt and Saudi Arabia as in this summer’s Cairo Declarations, but beyond.  Many political circumstances have led to the growth and expansion of terrorist groups – in Syria, Libya, Yemen, Egypt, the GCC, Iraq, Jordan, Somalia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and beyond as well as their funders and supporters elsewhere.  De facto arrangements allowing them to remain in certain locations is no solution at all.


#Egypt’s #Sinai Campaign and #Terrorism Beyond July 15 – August 1, 2015

2 Aug

Aug 1. Egypt’s army says it has killed a leading figure in Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis

July 31 Twenty militants killed in strikes in northern #Sinai #Egypt

July 30 The prosecutors in Suez have referred 38 Muslim Brotherhood members to trial for burning cars belonging to the Suez oil company last February

July 29 On the displaced #Sinai families, due to the CT campaign there:

July 29 Egypt is participating in a United Nations counterterrorism meeting including session concerning foreign fighters

July 29 Sinai militancy and possible threat to international forces (the MFO)

July 29 Assets of 78 Muslim Brotherhood members frozen according to Dunne that makes 1300 (not sure of accuracy)

July 28 10 militants killed, 15 others injured during raids by Apache helicopters on terrorists’ hotbeds in S. Sheikh Zwayed, (Hasan Sari)

July 28 Detention renewed for Esra al-Taweel, photojournalist

July 28 Bomb explodes in al-Arish targeting a military vehicle

July 26 A missile (source unknown) fell on a house killing a woman.

July 26 A military court in Suez sentenced 2 Muslim Brotherhood members (in abstentia) for burning a car.

July 26 A bus full of soldiers in Arish was bombed injuring 18 & the Wilayat Sinai claimed responsibility for the bombing. And see

July 25 12 militants killed and 3 of #Egypt‘s officers injured in northern #Sinai

July 24 Two officers and a conscript injured in a blast in Shaykh Zuwayd

July 24 A Croatian citizen was kidnapped in Cairo.

July 23 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis claimed responsibility for a bomb attack which killed 4 military personnel in the Sinai.

July 23 #Egypt has managed to silence news of a two-day long #IS#Sinai and #Hamas assault on MFO’s North Camp (according to @debka_english.

July 22 Hisham al-Ashmawy (a former Special Forces officer, leader of al-Murabitoun) called for jihad against Egypt’s “new Pharoah”

July 22 Militants planted IEDs outside the homes of 2 policemen in al-Arish in the Sinai.

July 21 Explosion in Fayyoum near an electricity facility.

July 20 A “killed” conscript in Saturday’s attack in the Sinai was discovered alive.

July 20 The Army spokesman said the military is in control of every inch of the Sinai.

July 19 Death toll from Saturday (18th) was 7 military killed and 59 militants in the Sinai.

July 18 5 army personnel killed (original claim was 3 killed and four injured) in Shaykh Zuwayd.

July 17 6 killed and 3 injured at Talibya in Giza; and in another story, 1 killed in clashes between pro-MB and security at Kerdasa

July 17 Egypt’s security arrested those at Yqeen News – accuse it of being a MB media committee

July 17 #Egypt‘s interior ministry released 424 prisoners today & offered conditional release to 101 presidnt’l pardon. -MENA

July 17 Maj Gen. Osama Bedeir removed as Cairo’s security chief and replaced by Khaled Abdelaal

July 16 Small bomb blast injured police officer at popular square in #Cairo‘s Heliopolis – #Egypt

July 15 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis and Egypt’s military issued conflicting statements on the attack on the Qattamiyya-Suez road

July 15 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, claimed Wednesday’s truck bomb attack on the (Qattamiyya-) Suez road in which a suicide bomber was killed. (in other reports, appears as a huge explosion)

July 15 198 were referred to military judiciary for terrorist crimes

July 15 The German embassy in Cairo closed after receiving threats of a car bomb

July 15 Quran reader, Mohammed Gebreel not allwd travel to #UK & banned from Quran reading after speaking out against #Egypt‘s govt. (sources like Tariq Ramadan praise him)

July 15 Rabaa al-Adawiyya Square will be renamed for Hisham Barakat, the assassinated prosecutor general

July 15 A policeman was killed in an armed attack on a checkpoint in Remaya Square in Haram. 3 gunmen arrested (Youm 7)

July 15 #Sinai bedouin and the fight against #terrorists #Egypt

Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Egypt’s Sinai and beyond: July 1 – July 15, 2015

15 Jul

July 15 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis and Egypt’s military issued conflicting statements on the attack on the Qattamiyya-Suez road

July 15 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, claimed Wednesday’s truck bomb attack on the (Qattamiyya-) Suez road in which a suicide bomber was killed. (in other reports, appears as a huge explosion)

July 15 198 were referred to military judiciary for terrorist crimes

July 15 The German embassy in Cairo closed after receiving threats of a car bomb
July 15 Quran reader, Mohammed Gebreel not allwd travel to #UK & banned from Quran reading after speaking out against #Egypt’s govt. (sources like Tariq Ramadan praise him)

July 15 Rabaa al-Adawiyya Square will be renamed for Hisham Barakat, the assassinated prosecutor general

July 15 A policeman was killed in an armed attack on a checkpoint in Remaya Square in Haram. 3 gunmen arrested (Youm 7)
July 15 #Sinai bedouin and the fight against #terrorists #Egypt

July 14 Twenty-five killed and 30 injured in a counterattack by Egypt’s army against a group that targeted a checkpoint in Shaykh Zuwayd

July 14 Curfew hours in northern Sinai will be shortened during the Eid al-Fitr

July 14 State of #Sinai claimed the bombing of two #Egypt military vehicles, including one near Gora airport.

July 14 Egypt’s authorities have identified 3 persons as the bombers of the Italian consulate in Cairo – two from Beni Suef and one from Fayyoum

July 13 People stop a church service & demand the church’s demolition in Abu Kerkas in Minya

July 13 Two of the defendents in the Shura Council trial were given 3 year sentences. They had been charged in abstentia but turned themselves in.
July 12 #Egypt bans 4×4 vehicles in #Sinai fighting zones. The bedouin often drive 4x4s & SUVs.
July 11 Huge explosion outside Italy’s consulate in #Cairo kills at least one – with a charge of roughly 250 kg of TNT!

July 10 Army kills 2 suspected militants in Shaykh Zuwayd and destroyed an explosive warehouse

July 9 21 police personnel injured in roadside bomb in Arish
July 8 Hamas’ military wing, Izz al-Din al-Qassam brigades are aiding ISIS (ABM) in the Sinai, while cracking down on ISIS in Gaza

July 8 Mortar round kills five Egyptians in Sinai and 4 injured
July 7 Fourteen NGOS dissolved for #MuslimBrotherhood connections #Egypt #Ikhwan

July 7 100 activists arrested for unauthorized protesting will be released on the Eid al-Adha.

July 7 Explosion near a court in #Beheira today and five injured. #Egypt

July 6 241 militants in the Sinai killed over the last 5 days says Army spokesman

July 5. New major tunnel found in Rafah and Egypt’s military kills some ABM militants inside
July 5 Egypt’s military launches air strikes and has killed 63 militants this week
July 4 Three children and a woman are killed in military air strikes on terrorists in Shaykh Zuwayd

July 4 SkynewsArabia Breaking: says 2 civilians dead and one soldier injured in Sheikh Zoweid, Sinai, due to a bomb explosion
July 4 Egypts army just foiled new attempt to muggle 500klg shipment of explosives via one tunnel S. Rafah crossing point.
July 4 Bomb planted under Fayoum Investigation police chief has been defused |
July 3 #MB supporters block Sudan street in #Cairo, set tires on fire; security forces dispersed them… #Egypt Security forces dispersed 3 Muslim Brotherhood marches today

July 3 A somewhat exaggerated picture of protests in Matariyya in Cairo

July 3 A protester is killed in a march in Maadi
July 3 35 militants killed in #ShaykhZuwayd and #Rafah yesterday. #Sinai #Egypt

July 2 People in #Minya accuse a #Copt of changing his home into a church. #Egypt #sectarianism
July 2 Ehab Sheeha, head of Asala Party, swears on TV that if Sisi is not killed, Egyptians will face dark upcoming days. (via @virtualactivism)

July 2 Police raided an apartment and killed 13 Muslim Brotherhood members. In response, Muslim Brotherhood called for an uprising. Also, 75 female students were suspended from al-Azhar on charges of violence & conspiring against the university –
July 2 Head of Cairo University shuts down the University’s small mosques (zawyas) to prevent the spreading of radical thought

July 2 #Egypt|ian air strikes kill 23 militants in northern #Sinai

July 2 Longest battle fought by Egyptian military against terrorists in #ShaykhZuwayd
July 1 #Egypt Army Statement: Egypt army killed at least 100 terrorists in N. #Sinai, destroyed 20 vehicles, and the army lost 17 soldiers; Egyptian army also deployed reinforcements in Rafah, closed all roads going out of the city & began the hunt for terrorists.

July 1 During the day, militants surrounded the Shaykh Zuwayd police station – other reports claimed they held the town (that was inaccurate).
July 1 Sound bomb explodes in #Aswan, #Egypt none hurt

July 1 One of the multiple attacks in northern #Sinai involved a car bomb which killed 11 (in total 30+)

July 1 (Numbers ranged from 30+ to 50 to 64) of Egypt’s soldiers killed in the Sinai and dozens injured in multiple attacks

#Egypt’s War on Terrorism: June 15 – July 1, 2015

2 Jul

July 1 #Egypt Army Statement: Egypt army killed at least 100 terrorists in N. #Sinai, destroyed 20 vehicles, and the army lost 17 soldiers; Egyptian army also deployed reinforcements in Rafah, closed all roads going out of the city & began the hunt for terrorists.

July 1 During the day, militants surrounded the Shaykh Zuwayd police station – other reports claimed they held the town (that was inaccurate).



July 1   Sound bomb explodes in #Aswan#Egypt none hurt


July 1 One of the multiple attacks in northern #Sinai involved a car bomb which killed 11 (in total 30+)


July 1 (Numbers ranged from 30+ to 50 to 64) of Egypt’s soldiers killed in the Sinai and dozens injured in multiple attacks



June 30 President Sisi speaks to the nation and with the family members of the assassinated Minister of Justice, Hisham Barakat

June 30 Gunmen shoot dead #Egyptian policeman outside the Helwan Wax Museum, south Cairo


June 30 Car bomb near 6th police station, Body parts found casualties reported.


June 30 Security forces have arrested a 23 year old man who wrote that the Giza Popular Resistance Brigades was responsible for the death of Hisham Barakat Earlier article concerned the group Also reports that 40 others were detained for investigation.


June 30 Two bombs exploded in #6th_of_October on #Egypt‘s second anniversary of 6/30 Giza police say 52 bombs were planted near high power electricity towers all of which exploded but only 4 towers were demolished.



June 30 Policeman killed, 2 wounded in Beni Suef shooting 

June 30 Two dead and 13 injured as a bomb hit a vehicle carrying Transport Authority staff on a road between al-Arish and Shaykh Zuwayd


June 29 Hisham Barakat succumbed to his wounds and died today.


June 29 Bomb explodes killing general manager of highways(?) and 2 others in north Sinai; 9 others injured   (also reported above)


June 29 Three killed and 13 injured in bomb attack in northern Sinai



June 29 Ikhwan leader Akram Kassab says murder of judges, police and army is a ‘sharia’ [legitimate] necessity


June 28 An explosion hit the Prosecutor General’s car and procession but the assassination attempt failed (initially – later he died)   Two security personnel & a civilian wounded in this attack on Hisham Barakat



June 28 Bomb exploded outside Qasr al-Nil station in Garden City next to Saudi Consulate #Cairo  #Egypt


June 28 3 IED att (Aswan; Cairo); 24 IEDs def; 42 terr susp arrest.


June 27 Assailants set a Giza traffic office on fire with Molotov cocktails


June 27 IED att (Beheira); 2 IED def (Beheira; N.Sinai); 30 terr susp arrest.



June 27 Bomb went off as attackers were riding a motorbike to go plant it at a Damanhour bus stop – killing both of them and damaging a bus


June 26 IED att; 1 IED def (Asyut); 1 arm att (N.Sinai-1 civ kill 1 kidn); 30-48 terr susp arrest



June 26 10 suspected militants killed in northern Sinai


une 26 Ansar Morsi/pro #MB clash with police in their Friday style #Matariyya #Egypt


June 26 IED explosion halts trains between #Alexandria and #Cairo. No injuries. #Egypt


June 25 9 pro-#Morsi ‘Revolutionary Punishment’ group mbrs arrested 4 killing a man in Helwan & publishing a video of his execution online


June 24 Article based on anonymous sources by ANONYMOUS (not for the first time in the Monitor) in the Sinai claiming that the death sentences for Morsi et al. will heighten violence in the Sinai.


June 24 ISIS affiliate in Sinai releases pictures of one of its religious classes.


June 23 On terrorism’s challenge to Egypt – back in the ‘90s and at present.



June 23 State Commissioners recommends dual citizens banned from owning #Sinai lands #Egypt More:



June 22 8 policemen & civilians wounded after 2 explosions in #Arish #Sinai #Egypt


June 22 22 militants killed in #Shaykh Zuwayd – 16 of them ‘gathering outside of mosque”


June 22 Min. of Interior says a major plot to bomb Cairo –Upper Egypt train was thwarted


June 22 Egypt’s army dug a trench along the border with Israel to prevent further tunnel construction.



June 22 Germany releases Egyptian journalist Mansour, sentenced to 15 years in abstentia in Egypt


June 19 A policeman was injured when attackers threw an IED at his home in al-Arish.


June 19 Clashes between Muslim Brotherhood supporters and security forces in Sharqiyya and one student – who was a passerby – was killed.


June 18 Wilayat Sinai admits its leader Abul Qaaqaa al-Muhajir was killed in April raids in Arish


June 17 Army says it foiled a major attack and killed 7 suspected terrorists #Sinai,-killed–terroris.aspx


June 17 Police officer killed, 3 injured in roadside bomb #Sinai (#Egypt Another attack took place earlier.



June 17 165 arrested/detained youth were released for the occasion of Ramadan


June 16 Morsi’s death sentence was upheld in same trial in which he and 16 others received life imprisonment for spying for Hamas and IRGC.


June 16 Egyptian militants pledged allegiance to ISIS during their trial in Cairo.



June 15 Police captain’s home torched in Maadi


June 15 A Muslim Brotherhood march has posters calling for Pres. Sisi’s execution



June 15 Power station of the weaving factory in Gharbiyya set on fire.


June 15 Minister of Defense, Sedki Sobhi attended graduation ceremonies at Egyptian Command and Staff College



June 15 Explosion destroys a 4th high energy electricity tower in Oseem, north of Giza. 2 others defused. Three towers collapsed in two bombings:

Testimony of Omar Suleiman on 9/14/11

23 Jun
Testimony of Omar Suleiman
Retired Chief of Staff and Vice President of the Republic
Courtesy of Rebel
Session 9/14/2011
Testimony of Omar Suleiman
Retired Chief of Staff and Vice President of the Republic
Prosecuting Attorneys Present
Mustafa Soliman
Ashour Farag
Mustafa Khater
Wail Hussein
Ahmed Hussein
Some of the significant points are:
*President Mubarak’s cognizance of events.
*MOI’s knowledge of Hamas and bedouin attack in Sinai and (NOTE) claim that bedouin came in to Cairo along with 70 to 90 members of Hizbullah to conduct the prison break*the security establishment knew that the Muslim Brotherhood would not participate in the demonstrations of 1/25/11   But then MB “informed them” they would take part on 1/27

*the collapse of the police force necessitating deployment of the AF


*MOI’s knowledge of Hamas and bedouin attack in Sinai and (NOTE) claim that bedouin came in to Cairo along with 70 to 90 members of Hizbullah to conduct the prison break


*the security establishment knew that the Muslim Brotherhood would not participate in the demonstrations of 1/25/11 (why? The deal btw leadership and the govt)  But then MB “informed them” they would take part on 1/27


*the collapse of the police force necessitating deployment of the AF


*MOI’s knowledge of Hamas and bedouin attack in Sinai and (NOTE) claim that bedouin came in to Cairo along with 70 to 90 members of Hizbullah to conduct the prison break


*the security establishment knew that the Muslim Brotherhood would not participate in the demonstrations of 1/25/11 (why? The deal btw leadership and the govt)  But then MB “informed them” they would take part on 1/27


*the collapse of the police force necessitating deployment of the AF


*MOI’s knowledge of Hamas and bedouin attack in Sinai and (NOTE) claim that bedouin came in to Cairo along with 70 to 90 members of Hizbullah to conduct the prison break


*the security establishment knew that the Muslim Brotherhood would not participate in the demonstrations of 1/25/11 (why? The deal btw leadership and the govt)  But then MB “informed them” they would take part on 1/27


*the collapse of the police force necessitating deployment of the AF


*MOI’s knowledge of Hamas and bedouin attack in Sinai and (NOTE) claim that bedouin came in to Cairo along with 70 to 90 members of Hizbullah to conduct the prison break


*the security establishment knew that the Muslim Brotherhood would not participate in the demonstrations of 1/25/11 (why? The deal btw leadership and the govt)  But then MB “informed them” they would take part on 1/27


*the collapse of the police force necessitating deployment of the AF

Q: As chief of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service (EGIS), what social and economic developments did you and your agency observe on the Egyptian scene between 2004 and 2010, on through the parliamentary elections?
A: I’d like to quickly clarify that EGIS is responsible for gathering political, economic, and military information from abroad which enables the political leadership to take political, economic, and military decisions. As for the domestic environment, there is a body within EGIS that coordinates with the rest of the security establishment in gathering information. This agency is responsible for protecting foreigners, counter intelligence, and protecting confidential information. The agents therein gather intelligence on people present in Egyptian society. As for the question, intelligence from abroad indicated that the Egyptian economy was expanding and improving with time. However this improvement had not reached those of limited income and moreover there was unemployment. There were continuous complaints regarding spikes in prices and many demands to raise salaries. There were certain people who opposed the regime who sought to provoke the people. Starting in 2005, foreign operations began cooperating with NGOs based in Egypt to stir the emotions of the people against the regime. Beginning in 2005 there was an American program called Democracy and Good Governance which received funding. There had been an agreement with the Egyptian government regarding the allocation of these funds, however they violated the agreement, they being the American side, and they began funding these NGOs without any agreement with the Egyptian government. We lodged many complaints to the Americans but these were ignored. These NGOs trained many young men and women in mobilizing society, demonstrations, and civil disobedience. That continued until 2010, according to gathered intelligence. The state of discontent grew noticeably after the elections to the House of Representatives, especially when the political forces withdrew during the restructuring phase and the House of Representatives represented no political power in addition to numerous other criticisms that in turn led to even more discontent amongst the people.
Q: Did EGIS send any reports detailing what it had observed to the accused former president Hosni Mubarak? Did you ever present the contents of these reports to him directly, or did someone else, and if so, who?
A: We write monthly and quarterly reports on the security situation in the country. These are sent to the president of the republic by mail. In some meetings headed by the former president, I had mentioned this information to him directly.
Q: What came of these reports which were sent by mail or presented by you to the former president of the republic?
A: He ordered the government or ministers to carry out the reports’ recommendations.
Q: While you were chief, did EGIS observe any events prior to 25 January 2011? And what were the expectations held at that time?
A: Starting in 8/2010, we began to observe communications between the opposition movements and abroad. In addition there were directives to receive training in mass mobilization, protests, and police confrontation. Specifically there was a training session in Poland and in 1/2011. EGIS also observed another 3-day training session in Cairo for the same purposes. Because of these communications it was expected that there would be a demonstration on 1/25/2011.
Q: Did you personally communicate this information to the accused former president of the republic?
A: At the closing of the economic forum held in Sharm el-Sheikh on 1/19/2011 I told the former president of the necessity of convening a meeting to discuss this issue.
Q: Did you tell this to another official working in state intelligence?
A: EGIS shares intelligence with national security and the State Security Investigations Service in a routine manner.
Q: What was the former president’s response after hearing this information from you, that demonstrations would be held?
A: The former president convened a meeting through PM Ahmed Nadif and the meeting was held the next day.
Q: When EGIS learned of the demonstrations taking place on 1/25, did it also learn of the reasons behind them, the groups organizing it, its size, and its locations?
A: EGIS surveillance of Facebook revealed the groups behind the demonstrations to be mostly from the April 6 Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, and other political currents. We had become accustomed to seeing such demonstrations over the past several years.
Q: Was the meeting actually held?
A: Yes, it was held the next day.
Q: Where and when did the meeting take place?
A: On 1/20. I said in a previous testimony that it was 1/22, but upon reviewing the schedule I found that the meeting had taken place on 1/20 at 1pm in Smart Village.
Q: Who was summoned to the meeting?
A: I asked the former president to call this meeting and he ordered the PM to organize it.
Q: What was the purpose and objective of this meeting?
A: To determine how the security establishment was going to handle the coming events.
Q: Who attended the meeting, and who presided over it?
A: PM Ahmed Nadif presided over the meeting, and in attendance were the heads of the security establishment, the minister of defense, the minister of interior, the chief of EGIS, the minister of information, and the minister of communications.
Q: Specify to the court the titles and names of the aforementioned individuals who attended the meeting.
A: PM Ahmed Nadif; Defense and Military Production Minister Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, commander of the AF; Interior Minister Habib el-Adly; Minister of Information Anas al-Fiqqi; Minister of Communications Tariq Kamel; and myself as Chief of EGIS.
Q: What topics were discussed between those gathered at the meeting?
A: I explained my point of view that there would be a demonstration on 1/25 and that we must be prepared for it. Fortunately all intelligence indicated that the Muslim Brotherhood would not take part in the demonstrations and that this demonstration would proceed like all of the others have over the past several years. Habib el-Adly presented us with some information regarding the demonstrations and the options available to the police in containing them. The minister of information spoke about the foreign organizations that had been infiltrating Egyptian society and what they would do at the ministry of information regarding coverage of the events.
Q: During this meeting, did the accused former IM Habib Ibrahim el-Adly say how the demonstrations planned to take place on 1/25 would be contained?
A: The aforementioned former IM explained that they would accompany the protests in the same manner as they had during previous demonstrations.
Q: Did the aforementioned former IM explain how past demonstrations had been contained?
A: He said that he would accompany the protests until they dispersed, because the intelligence we had said that demonstrators would hold sit-ins in various public squares and once night fell, they would return to their homes. The job of the IM was to protect the demonstrators and strategic locations.
Q: Again, did the discussions touch on how the situation would be handled, aside from protecting the demonstrators, if the situation devolved?
A: We only spoke about whether or not the Muslim Brotherhood would take part. The IM said that any demonstrations that included Brotherhood elements would be dispersed and demonstrators arrested.
Q: Was the accused former president of the republic made aware about the results of this meeting?
A: Usually whoever heads these meetings informs the president, however I do not know whether or not Ahmed Nadif informed him.
Q: On 1/25, in detail, how were demonstrators in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt approached and dealt with?
A: According to EGIS intelligence, the police accompanied and protected these demonstrations until 8pm on 1/25. After that, around midnight, we have information that says that there was an order to disperse the crowds of demonstrators using peaceful means.
Q: What do you mean by “peaceful means?” And who was charged with dispersing the crowds in this manner?
A: Truncheons, water hoses, smoke, and all of the other tactics that the MoI is known to use.
Q: While you were watching the successive events which unfolded between 1/25 and 1/28, how were the demonstrations being conducted? And how were they being monitored and dealt with?
A: EGIS followed the events of 1/26 and 1/27 closely yet there were no momentous events. However from our observations of Palestinian activity, we noticed that there were communications between Hamas and Bedouins in the Sinai and that some groups had entered via the underground tunnels which straddle the Egyptian-Gazan border. They communicated with the Bedouins and agreed with them that they would provide them with ordnance in exchange for assistance in freeing their comrades from Egyptian prisons. That was on 1/27. Sure enough Bedouins began the prison break operation by sporadically attacking a police outpost in Sheikh Zuweid with firearms in the region that borders the underground tunnels, so that the police forces and border guards could not get close to the tunnels. Ordnance was smuggled through and the Qassam Brigades created a diversion so that the border guards would not pursue the smuggled ordnance. Thus the weapons, ammo, and explosives were successfully smuggled and given to the Bedouins. The Bedouins accompanied the smugglers to Cairo so as to storm the prisons in which Hamas elements were being kept. About 70 to 90 members of Hezbollah who were based in Gaza also joined them. On 1/28 after the Friday Afternoon Prayer, some of them were seen in Tahrir Square, while others were preparing to carry out the prison breaks with help from Bedouin known for smuggling in the nearby regions, especially in Wadi El Natrun. In addition, on 1/27 the Muslim Brotherhood informed us that they were going to take part in the demonstrations on 1/28 after Friday Afternoon Prayer. Thus hordes of people from all around Cairo began mobilizing and heading for Tahrir Square. All of the mosques in the vicinity of Tahrir Square were filing directly into the square in great numbers. At EGIS we assessed the situation and found that the situation was highly unstable and that numbers of this magnitude could easily cause big problems. We followed the situation closely and our assessment was proved correct when people from this vast crowd began clashing with police and setting fire to various buildings and objects. Crime rings and felons began to storm police stations. By midnight on 1/28, Hamas and Hezbollah had succeeded in freeing their comrades from prison. Many successive events eventually led to the police force leaving its posts and abandoning its duties in front of this massive crowd that was unprecedented in number. On the afternoon of 1/28, we learned that Habib el-Adly had asked the president of the republic to deploy the army, and at around 6pm on the same day, the AF began to establish a presence in the streets. By that time the police had almost entirely withdrawn and the overwhelming demonstrations walked unchecked and their chants for the first time began to include demands for the fall of the regime. The police force was broken at about 5pm on 1/28.
Q: Did you inform the accused former president of the republic about the degradation of the situation and advise him to take measures in order to confront this major event, as you said?
A: From what I know, the IM contacted the former president and requested the assistance of the AF and this demand cannot be made unless the situation is dire. The president met this request, which pays testament to the gravity of the situation.
Q: What is your assessment of how the police establishment handled the events?
A: No one among us expected this many people to take part in the demonstrations and it would have been impossible for the police to do its duty of protecting the demonstrators and property by itself with this many people. The AF needed to be deployed. The police presence in the squares was dwarfed by the size of the demonstrations and was incapable of dispersing or protecting crowds of that size, especially considering that there were elements which were clashing with the police forces. It stayed like this for three days and thus the powers of the police were exhausted and they were unable to continue.
Q: Did EGIS ever communicate any advice or points of view regarding the manner in which the demonstrations were being handled and what mechanisms or tactics should be tried after the police failed to contain the crowds?
A: Usually when the police forces collapse the only solution is to deploy the AF. As soon as I learned that the IM had requested from the president to deploy the army, my role was over.
Q: Did the accused former president issue any orders or directives regarding the manner in which the demonstrations should be confronted?
A: I do not know what the president discussed with the IM, but over the past several years he has known that containing demonstrations involves the use of shields, gas, and water.
Q: Does containing demonstrations involve using projectiles, including live ammunition?
A: According to EGIS intelligence, riot dispersal units are not equipped with firearms.
Q: If the situation devolves, is it permissible, in your assessment, that the demonstrators be confronted using firearms?
A: I know that the riot dispersal units are charged with driving persons away, and when they fail they collapse.
Q: What do you mean by riot dispersal?
A: Riot dispersal that takes place at demonstrations.
Q: Do you mean to say the CSF?
A: It is a part of the CSF.
Q: Did EGIS, with you at its head, record the presence of snipers belonging to the police?
A: I don’t know.
Q: Many of the causalities among the demonstrators were clearly caused by projectiles or firearms. How do you explain that?
A: It could have come from forces other than the police riot dispersal units.
Q: What do you suppose these forces could have been if not policemen?
A: Unfortunately I do not have the powers in EGIS to gather such intelligence.
Q: Are you able to determine who is responsible for the injuries and deaths among the demonstrators?
A: I went to the president’s office and told him that he should form a fact finding commission that could uncover the reasons behind this large number of injuries and deaths.
Q: What specific measures did you undertake between 1/25 and 2/11 to determine the reasons behind the injuries and deaths that befell the protestors?
A: Unfortunately on the evening of 1/28 the police forces collapsed entirely and the AF needed a certain amount of time to diffuse out into the streets and take control of command operations. During the time between 1/28 and 1/31 there was a perfect security vacuum, during which there was an assassination attempt on my life. We did not manage to apprehend the culprit despite the fact that some people were killed. The collapse encompassed all sections and divisions of the MoI. When Mahmoud Wagdy took over as IM on 1/31 he had a very difficult job in front of him. Moreover the process required for determining the cause of injury and death would have been extremely difficult and obtaining the proper documentation would have taken much time to produce results. I asked the former president to form a fact finding commission and it was formed.
Q: Did you learn what conclusions this commission came to or the perpetrators it identified regarding the cause behind the injuries and deaths of some demonstrators?
A: This commission was active until the day my service ended on 2/11/2011 with the resignation of the former president of the republic. I followed the commission closely and it was summoning many witnesses, however the commission never came to a concrete decision regarding who determinately killed or injured the protestors.
Q: Meaning that in your capacity as either vice president or chief of EGIS, you never learned the true cause behind the injuries and deaths of some demonstrators?
A: The intelligence that EGIS had procured had to do with the deaths and injuries that occurred as a result of the prisons and police stations being stormed. As for the deaths and injuries of 1/28, the entire police apparatus had withdrawn and collapsed, and moreover we were not able to gather enough information to say determinately who was behind the killings and injuries.
Q: In their testimonies to the public prosecutor in this courtroom, some witnesses testified to having seen CSF policemen wielding rifles capable of firing rubber bullets and tear-gas canisters. Do you think that injuries or deaths could have been caused by the policemen using these weapons?
A: From my personal understanding, if a projectile strikes a vulnerable area then it could feasibly be fatal. Water cannons sometimes can be fatal in the same manner. I know that the CSF is armed with truncheons, tasers, and tear-gas.
Q: Can you say with certainty that the CSF, using the weapons with which they were armed, was the cause of the injuries and deaths?
A: If CSF was the only force present then they could not have been equipped with fire arms or projectiles. However it is possible that there were other forces present with CSF and I cannot say for certain.
Q: What do you mean by other forces?
A: Possibly from the local precincts or something.
Q: Can you definitively determine the extent of responsibility the former president of the republic bears in terms of political responsibility considering that he was ruling the country when injuries and deaths occurred in the demonstrations that took place on a national scale?
A: I cannot definitely say however everything that the president was asked to do to protect the country he did. When the police collapsed and the IM requested the assistance of the AF, he immediately approved the request. When political concessions were demanded of him, he immediately complied. This was all that was asked of him until he resigned.
Q: Can you determine – given you were by the president’s side – that he knew of the violations that the demonstrators had sustained during the attempts to contain the demonstrations, which led to the matter spiraling out of control and violent clashes that in turn caused injury and death among many demonstrators on a national scale?
A: From 1/31, the day I took charge, I was authorized by the president to make calls of a political nature to protect the regime and the country. From 1/31 until 2/11, there were no clashes between police and protestors.
Q: However the question is: Can you say in front of the court that the president was aware of what had taken place in the demonstrations and in Egypt at large regarding the injuries and deaths of protestors?
A: The fact that he approved the formation of a fact finding commission implies that he was aware.
Q: Upon learning of these facts, did the former president inquire as to the cause of these injuries and deaths?
A: He was waiting for the commission’s report.
Q: Did the former president ever indicate to you during a side conversation or any time that he was aware of the culprit responsible for the injuries and deaths or demonstrators?
A: He never once spoke with me about this topic.
Q: The court repeats the question regarding who you believe caused the injuries and deaths, and if they resulted from the use of projectiles and firearms.
A: I don’t know.
Q: Medical reports from the investigation revealed that all of the injuries sustained by demonstrators all resulted from projectiles or firearms. Those asked in the investigation stated that they had been injured by policemen using firearms or projectiles. So how do you explain these statements from those injured?
A: Police are typically armed with projectiles. So if there were definitely injuries caused by projectiles then it would have been from police projectiles. As for injuries from live rounds shot from firearms, this is a strange occurrence that does not occur except for in cases of self-defense.
Q: Can you definitively determine the extent of responsibility that the accused former IM Habib el-Adly bears regarding the confrontations between the police and the protestors during which some were injured and others killed?
A: I cannot definitely determine the extent of responsibility.
Q: On what basis cannot you not definitively say?
A: Because this is not within my purview as chief of EGIS.
Q: Generally speaking as a passive observer of the events, can you say whether former President Hosni Mubarak or former IM Habib el-Adly is responsible for the injuries and deaths?
A: As a passive observer, what happened in Egypt was bigger than the police establishment was capable of handling and this led to a security vacuum. It could be that the injuries occurred without any directives as a result of the chaos. But this is not the intelligence of the chief of EGIS.
Q: Did EGIS intelligence reveal anything regarding the true relationship between former President Mubarak and the accused Hussein Kamal al-Din Salem?
A: Former President Mubarak went to Sharm al-Sheikh in the early 1990s so as to put the destination on the international tourist map. He encouraged business men to invest in Sharm al-Sheikh to this end, and Hussein Salem was among these business men: that is when the president’s relationship with him started.
Q: What were the extents of that relationship, and could it be classified as a friendship?
A: Encouraging investments is one thing, and friendship is another thing. I don’t know whether or not there was friendship between the president and Hussein Salem. However many occasions and events such as conferences were held at hotels owned by Hussein Salem and others.
Q: Were compliments ever exchanged between the former president and the accused Hussein Salem?
A: In my capacity as a subordinate to the president, it is not my job to monitor the personal behavior of the president.
Q: What intelligence do you have regarding the villas which the accused Hussein Salem gave to the accused former President Hosni Mubarak and the accused Alaa Mohamed Hosni Mubarak and the accused Gamal Mohamed Hosni Mubarak?
A: There is no intelligence in this regard because EGIS does not concern itself with such matters. From my personal knowledge, yes, Hussein Salem used to build many villas in Sharm al-Sheikh in the Golf area and that, yes, he did sell five villas to the president but I never inquired about the details, such as the price.
Q: Do the sales contracts of these villas represent an exploitation of the former president’s powers along with an exploitation of the influence of the two other aforementioned accused persons?
A: It is personal knowledge, not EGIS information, that Hussein Salem had wanted the president to own property in Sharm al-Sheikh so that Sharm al-Sheikh could continue to be a promising tourist destination.
Q: Do you think that the price at which those villas were sold are in keeping with the real price of any one of those five villas?
A: I don’t know.
Q: What information did EGIS collect while under your leadership regarding the contract to export gas to Israel?
A: There had been an agreement between former President Anwar Sadat and President Carter to provide Israel with petroleum products, and a volume of 2 million tons annually was agreed upon and transactions were based on global prices. That was in 1979 with the signing of the Camp David Accords and this petrol has continued to be sold to Israel. However, with the increases in domestic consumption in Egypt, we were not able to continue exporting the original volume so the amount of annual exports to Israel was significantly reduced. There were communications between Egyptian General Petroleum Co (EGPC) in Egypt and Israeli electric companies regarding providing these companies with natural gas from Egypt. Some messages were exchanged between the Israeli companies and the EGPC. With regards to the peace process, the Israelis place much significance on normalization, and commercial exchange between Egypt and Israel is an indication of normalization, the goal of which is the preservation of the peace and realizing creating mutual interests for both sides. Around 2000, when Atef Abid was PM, the Council of Ministers approved proposing gas export initiatives to a number of Mediterranean countries, including: Spain, Italy, France, Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon. The timing worked for the foreign parties and Egypt and three projects were agreed to: liquefying the gas and exporting it, exporting gas via pipeline, and exporting gas via pipelines that would run though Turkey and Israel, in addition to another Arab pipeline which would go to Jordan and, in future, extend to Syria and Lebanon. From what I remember this was in November 1999 or 2000. Mr. Hussein Salem proposed to the investment panel that a gas export company be established. In the past Mr. Hussein Salem had done business with the Israelis with the MIDOR project which is an oil refining operation. Mr. Hussein Salem with EGPC and the Israelis with Merhav, who were the same people who partook in the MIDOR project, together founded the East Mediterranean Gas Company (EGM) and they had a security clearance to do so. EGIS closely follows companies such as this one because they realize certain objectives: creating mutual interests, supporting the peace process, increased leverage, and other objectives. We began following this important project closely until the Palestinian uprising in 2000 when the project was put on hold and would stay as such until there was a rapprochement between the Palestinians and Israelis. EGIS began to promote this project as a point of contact between the Israelis and the Egyptian government, and in 2005 a contract was signed between EGM and an Israeli electric company and gas began flowing into Israel starting in 2008. Former President Hosni Mubarak in 2008 issued a decree to the government to raise the price of gas above US $3. He sent me on a mission to visit PM Ehud Olmert and I told him of the importance that he use his influence to facilitate amending the gas agreement because the president had decided that no gas would be sent to Israel unless prices were raised. This is the story of the gas exports to Israel according to EGIS.
Q: Investigations uncovered that the debentures from the sale and export of natural Egyptian gas to the state of Israel belonged to EGM, in which the accused Hussein Salem holds a majority stake, and that these debentures were from the former Egyptian Minister of Petrol, the accused Amin Sameh Samir Fahmy, whose case has been transferred to criminal court. Investigations revealed that the accused former president helped the minister by authorizing his company to sell gas at a price below global commercial prices, a move undertaken by the accused former president so that the accused Hussein Salem could realize profits. What is your personal or professional understanding of these events?
A: My professional understanding is that the president did not involve himself in setting prices or anything else of that sort and that the minister of petroleum was not among those who set the prices, rather it is a technical panel within EGPC which sets the prices in accordance with global standards. The former president never involves himself in setting prices. The minister of petroleum got approval from the Council of Ministers regarding the prices, volumes, and exports to Israel. The former president learned about the export of gas to Israel from the minister of petroleum. He had determined his stance towards this issue long ago back in the days of PM Rabin, and the president was not shown the export contract, having only learned about it from the minister of petroleum.
Q: Was the accused former President Hosni Mubarak aware of the price included in the contract and did he approve it before the contract was signed? Or did he learn of it after the contract was signed during its implementation phase. And what is your perspective on this price?
A: These details were not made known to the president.
Q: Who specifically is responsible for setting the price of the gas exported to Israel in accordance with the concluded contract between the two sides?
A: A technical panel within EGPC that is formed to set the prices for each country to which gas is exported.
Q: You mentioned that the accused former president issued a decree or directive that stated that the price must be above US $3, so does this mean that he decided to lower the price that was stated in the contract.
A: During the time the contract was signed with Israel petrol prices were at their normal levels. However from 2006 to 2008, global prices of petrol increased and thus the price of the gas we were selling became depressed. So the former president issued directives to correct domestic and exported gas prices so as to bring them in line with global levels.
Q: Did EGIS record the number of individuals who communicated with foreign organizations and who attended the training sessions in Poland and Cairo?
A: I don’t remember truthfully, but the public prosecutor could request them from EGIS.
Q: Did EGIS take any measures against these individuals?
A: No, just surveillance.
Q: Were there any measures taken against the Bedouin elements or other elements which you recently mentioned to the court?
A: The Bedouins paved the way for the smuggling operation by asserting control over the roads and surrounding areas which enabled the smuggling and the attack on the outpost in Sheikh Zuweid. They asserted their control over this region: we in EGIS gather intelligence.
Q: Why were the measures necessary to prevent that not taken?
A: EGIS’s powers in this case were limited to informing the border guard and the police, which have the power to prevent such an event, of some piece of intelligence. However the number of Bedouins and their ability to gain control prevented government forces from engaging them with counter measures.
Q: Can you remember the specifics surrounding your request of the accused former president to form a fact finding commission regarding the injuries and deaths among the protestors?
A: I think he issued a national decree to form such a commission on 2/1 or 2/2.
Q: From your military experience, is it possible for policemen to use firearms or projectiles, not including cases of self-defense, without approval from their superiors, top-most of them being the IM?
A: If conscripts were armed with projectiles then there was some intention to use them at some point. They wouldn’t arm conscripts with projectiles if they didn’t plan to use them. If policemen are armed with projectiles, they must appeal to their superiors for orders to fire the projectiles and fire in a manner that complies with the orders of the commander. As for firearms, they are not used except for in cases of self-defense.
Q: What measures should the police leadership have taken once they had realized the size and scope of the crowds of demonstrators?
A: The police assessed the situation incorrectly when they decided to continue to confront the demonstrators. When the IM saw that the police could no longer contain the crowds, he requested the deployment of the AF.
Q: What transpired during the meeting held on 1/30 that included yourself, the accused former president, the field marshall/minister of defense, and the chief of staff?
A: The president told me to be there at 9am on 1/30 in the operations center of the AF and that we would meet there at that time. We went into the operations center and the Chief of Staff Sami Anan and a few other officers began assessing the deployment of the AF, what had happened so far, and what would happen next, given that the deployment of the AF at that time took between 48 and 72 hours. The president was content with the deployment, seeing how AF units were distributed to the most sensitive locations and this was the overarching objective regarding deploying the AF across the entire country.
Q: How was it that gas was exported to a company in Israel which was founded by the accused Hussein Salem, and whose idea was it to found it?
A: It was Hussein Salem’s idea to found it. EGPC submitted a request to form the company to the investment body and the matter proceeded via the Council of Ministers until the contract was eventually signed.
Q: Did the accused former president play any part in naming the company which the accused Hussein Salem owned? Did he ever suggest changing the name to another name, which was not accepted by the accused Hussein Salem?
A: EGM was the company that worked to export gas to Israel and after the stoppage that resulted from the Intifada in Palestine, Hussein Salem sought to change the name to East Company for Gas. He was the primary share holder along with EGPC. After that the former president ordered him to forfeit the company to the Egyptian public sector and to stay with the original company he had founded, i.e., EGM for connecting pipelines to Israel. Hussein Salem was not happy with this and he did not want anyone saying that he was working with Israel.
Recess then the session reconvened in the absence of Mustafa Khater.
Civil Prosecutors
Q: What did EGIS do, given that it is charged with protecting the homeland, when it learned of reports that there had been communications, according to the intelligence that reached EGIS, that there was an international and domestic push to provoke the people against the government?
A: When I previously answered this question I said that EGIS is an information gathering service and it does not take measures.
Q: Is EGIS not involved in the decision making process?
A: Of course it is: when I inform other agencies then I am involved.
Q: What decision was made regarding what you learned from this information given that you were involved in the decision making process?
A: There are several other agencies involved in regards to this matter. For instance the government sends a directive to the minister of international cooperation to speak with the American embassy about immediately terminating funding to these NGOs, or a directive to other agencies that are monitoring the activities of these organizations: these are the procedures.
Q: Is it possible to prove the information which you provided in your report in this regard?
A: Who would be the one proving it? I can’t talk about EGIS work with them.
Q: Did EGIS monitor these NGOs?
A: Yes, in the usual manner in which EGIS conducts surveillance.
Q: Was the government aware of the project for supporting Democracy and Good Governance as you reported?
A: Yes.
Q: Does the president or the PM determine the price of exported gas or that of domestically consumed gas?
A: It is a technical procedure that is conducted in the ministry of petroleum and nowhere else.
Q: Was there training for young Egyptian men from various parties within and without Egypt? What measures did EGIS take in light of this?
A: The training had to do with democratic activism and NGOs, and the state does not impede such activities, however we do monitor them.
Q: Does EGIS conduct surveillance on business men and send these reports to the president of the republic?
A: When such information is requested I request it from the Administrative Control Authority because it is not within EGIS’s purview.
Attorney Abu Lahyia
Q: Did clandestine elements of EGIS report any intelligence regarding injuries and deaths from police firearms on 1/28?
A: Until the evening of 1/28, there was no report of injuries or deaths among the demonstrators in Tahrir Sq. or in any other public areas.
Q: Do the contents of the tape recordings which EGIS sent have to do with the period between 1/25 and 1/28?
A: The recordings are the property of the Egyptian Museum, not EGIS.
Q: Is it within the powers of the IM to issue an order to use live rounds without first appealing to the president of the republic?
A: Neither the president of the republic nor the IM can order live rounds to be fired. They can only be used in cases of self-defense.
Q: Who fired projectiles or live rounds in Suez which led to the fatalities?
A: I don’t know.
Q: Does EGIS, another agency, or you personally have any other information that has not been heard in the case?
A: No.
Q: Given that the IM had resigned, why was he summoned to attend the meeting?
A: The president wanted to understand the status of the police and Mr. Habib el-Adly was still in the MoI. He then waited for a while but then it was too difficult for the IM to attend because of a large demonstration in front of the MoI. He spoke with him about the status of the police and I submitted a report to the president that the police had collapsed and was no longer capable of upholding security.
Q: Do you rely on the police for the gathering of intelligence?
A: There are many agents that gather intelligence, and some of them are included amongst the police.

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