Sherifa Zuhur: Egypt: Log of Violence Jan 2014 – Feb 3, 2015 – Sinai, Muslim Brotherhood, Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis and more

3 Feb

Each day, I read claims in the media and social media that terrorism in Egypt is a) being exaggerated by the Egyptian ‘deep state’ or its supporters or b) that Egyptian militants in the Sinai, demonstrators on the mainland guilty of violence, or that saboteurs (planting bombs) are being unfairly pursued or charged because they are simply supporters of the ‘peaceful’ Muslim Brotherhood. Waves of violence began in August of 2013 and have not ceased, although the army and security forces are making inroads in the Sinai and are able to successfully defuse many of the bombs and devices planted in other parts of Egypt.   It is essential to understand that this violence is not a random outreach effort of ISIS – it is a deliberate strategy by Ansar Morsi, whether these are members of radical organizations like the State of Sinai/Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, or disgruntled supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan) and its now illegal political arm, the Freedom and Justice Party.   The Ikhwan have branches in 68 countries, their secret internal structure has survived numerous Egyptian governments, and their alliance with militants who are far less “moderate” should not surprise anyone familiar with the organization and its ultimate goals.


Also those who have studied the acts of terrorism (otherwise portrayed as political resistance) in Iraq will note similarities between the AQ organizations which developed there, the larger political struggle and the specific techniques of the Sinai-based groups.

To conclude now (as an article at Carnegie MEC – – one of the co-authors is not particularly familiar with Egypt and one wonders what is Carnegie’s intention in posting this)

or other US institutes which have rather consistently called for the inclusion of the Muslim Brotherhood) that the Sinai campaign has ‘failed’ – is shortsighted.   Such analysis also fails to perceive the connections between the Sinai violence – aimed to bring down the government or show its inefficacy and the other incidents of violence in Egypt connected to political opposition.

I am not writing this to support violations of anyone’s civil rights. The use of torture and violence in apprehension of suspects is anathema and counterproductive. The protest law in Egypt is another subject. Peaceful protest should be permitted, but there can be no reason to support violent actions in such protests. Above all it is important to see the volatility of the situation over last year and that the campaign against terrorism in the Sinai and outside it is necessary.


Many assert that military responses to counterterrorism will fail. In history, they have both failed and succeeded.  But they cannot achieve aims against terrorists without a full-out commitment as in all forms of warfare. The Sinai cannot be abandoned or permitted to be a training ground for terrorists who will soon operate elsewhere. Those who objected to the razing of a buffer area in Rafah, should note the vast number of tunnels discovered there and multiple operations by terrorists there.  Objections that Egypt “owes” Hamas the weapons or supplies that could be funneled to it fly in the face of current political realities, not least, Hamas’ relationship with Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood. Further, the government of Mohamed Morsi tried a ‘soft approach’ in the Sinai which resulted in attacks on Egypt’s military and the growth of the currently active groups. In fact, the presence of radical Islamists dates back to the Mubarak era, when attacks were launched against tourists and resulted in a severe crackdown on those locals thought to be accessories or hosts to these groups. Even at that time, the origins of these al-Qa’ida-linked groups and their weapons was a matter of dispute. Yes, the development of the Sinai is an essential aspect of countering terrorism there, and Egypt’s president recently committed funds to that purpose. Yes, the bedouin have been discriminated against and tribal loyalties have been manipulated by foes of the state. But the sheer number of incidents shows that the ‘developmental approach’ proposed (but never enacted) by Morsi’s government failed and that the current hostilities are linked, at least in part, to his supporters.


Here is a LOG of Related Incidents


It is not a complete list; has more incidents logged than the Atlantic Council’s Egypt Source (which is politically critical of Egypt but also relies on open sources).


Dr. Sherifa Zuhur, Institute of Middle Eastern, Islamic and Strategic Studies


February 2015


Feb. 3 Man killed in bomb blast in Alexandria, hours after two devices discovered at Cairo airport: ‪ 


Feb. 3 An IED (improvised explosive device) went off after a military convoy passed through Rafah. No injuries. Another device was found south of al-Arish.


Feb. 2 A claim (by @muhamedsabry) that the gas pipeline to Jordan was bombed again.


Feb. 2 Here the idea is that ISIS (and ABM in the Sinai) are illustrating weakness now rather than strength in the recent attacks.


Feb. 2 Some perspectives from ISW & others on the Sinai campaign


Feb 2 Bomb experts diffuse bomb in Abdel Monem Riyad Square in #Cairo. #Egypt


January 2015


Jan 31 Egyptian Interior Ministry employee killed: shot in the head in his home in al-Arish. This individual was a Christian.



Jan 31 President Sisi’s speech on the Sinai campaign in which he alludes to the Muslim Brotherhood, the “strongest secret organization” in the world.


Jan 31 At least 6 conscripts were injured when Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis attacked 3 checkponts in Rafah.


Jan 31 The Monib police station was set afire by Muslim Brotherhood supporters (yes, David Kirkpatrick) in the Giza governate.


Jan 30 An Egyptian court banned the al-Qassam brigades, Hamas’ military wing and listed it as a terrorist organization. Hamas’ spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri said Hamas “rejects” the decision.


Jan 30 New Sinai clashes kill 2 children


Jan 30 Pro-Muslim Brotherhood demonstration in Maadi – photos on Ikhwanweb.


Jan 30 Egypt’s president Sisi cut short his trip to Ethiopia after the deadly coordinated attacks in the Sinai & army launches a new offensive.


Jan 29 Death toll of at least 30 as Sinai militants used car bombs and mortars in the #Sinai



Jan 29 The Wahington Post editors once again critique Egypt’s government for “repression.” No acknowledgement of the attack by 100 militants on Egypt’s forces in the Sinai, and no mention of the many violent incidents in Egypt on 1/25, but the killing of a protester Shaima al-Sabagh (now being investigated by the Egyptian govt.) is. They use the article also to criticize Obama, for supporting the Sisi government .


Jan 29 2 injured as 6 bombs went off in #Sharqiyya#Egypt #MB–injured.aspx


Jan 28 9 injured in an explosion in Qalubiyya at a checkpoint.


Jan 28 The U.S. State Dept. hosted a meeting with Muslim Brotherhood officials (not just MB-aligned as the article states) and the same group spoke at an event at DC’s National Press club hosted by CSID. Jan Psaki, (WH) claimed the meeting was sponsored by Georgetown University (?)


Jan 27 An IED was thrown at a checkpoint in Qalubiyya and in Fayyoum, an IED exploded near a court building


Jan 27 516 allegedly supporting the Muslim Brotherhood were arrested in violent incidents commemorating


Jan 27 – The Muslim Brotherhood’s online Arabic site called on their members to launch jihad in an overt manner and with many historical references.


Jan 27 Pro-#Morsi Popular Resistance group in #Giza claims responsibility for torching #KFC in Haram via @Zeinobia. Video:


Jan 27 Four men were carrying a bomb in Alexandria when it detonated. One was killed & 2 severely injured. Also sound bombs went off Monday (1/26) night and a tramway carriage was burned in clashes between protesters and police.



Jan 26 6 explosive devices found and dismantled near Church of Virgin Mary in Fayyoum.


Jan 26 Attempt to break into police station in Sharqiya foiled, aggressors arrested


Jan 26 Two bombs found in City Stars mall in Nasr City, at main entrance and entrance 7, according to @ONewsAgency #Egypt


Jan 26 Ansar Bayt alMaqdis releases video of their murder of Ayman El-Dessouki earlier this month, linking them to cause of Ansar Morsi by showing protesters first.


Jan. 25 A car bomb exploded in front of a church in #Port Said.  #Egypt


Jan 25 Pro #MB small org just announced it burnt a post office servicing a crowded Cairo neighborhood


Jan 25 North #Sinai curfew extended by 3 months.  #Egypt


Jan 25   @Masrawy‘s reporter, Alaa Ahmed, got shot while covering Matareya clashes.  #Egypt #Jan25



Jan 25 4 Copts killed including a child in 1/25 proMB/anti’coup’ violence #Egypt


Jan 25, IkhwanWeb, the Muslim Brotherhood’s English language site, normally more understated than its Arabic site, issued a call to avenge every drop of blood in its AntiCoup efforts:


Jan 25 Bomb at Cairo-Alex railway track & also bomb near Shams club in Alf Maskan, two officers injured.



Jan. 25 Protesters set Haram district building on fire which authorities controlled. … #Egypt #مصر


Jan. 25 Detonating a bomb today in New Maadi. #Egypt …


Jan. 25 2 policemen were killed on the Ring Road in ‪#Cairo near Moneeb after gunmen in a car attacked. ‪#Egypt via ‪@TheCairoPost


Jan. 24   Shaima Sabbagh was part of a protest by the Socialist Popular Party which came into Tahrir to lay wreaths for the 1/15/11 fallen, and she was shot (disputes about whether by buckshot or birdshot) Eyewitnesses who reported were then questioned by authorities. 2 others wounded & 7 arrested.



Jan 24 Demolition of areas in the

Sinai buffer zone continues into phase 2.


Jan 21 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis pledged to continue attacks on the army


Jan 20 4 militants killed near Shaykh Zuwayd and Arish. Also 2 conscripts and an officer were injured in the explosion of roadside bomb near Shaykh Zuwayd


Jan 19   Sinai terrorists claim they have attacked an oil pipeline to Jordan


Jan 13 The policeman who was kidnapped near #Rafah has been found dead. #Sinai #Egypt


Five more bodies found today in the Sinai (seven were found yesterday)


Jan 12


Report and photos of alleged IS militants (ABM affiliated with ISIS) giving money to someone whose home was destroyed in the Sinai. #IS in #Sinai #Egypt distributing financial help to inhabitant for their “destroyed home”. There is money round now.

#Police arrests assailants accused of drive-by shooting in #Giza – News – #Aswat_Masriya … #Egypt #مصر


Jan. 11 An explosion rocked #Maadi earlier today #Egypt


Jan 11 Egyptian officer kidnapped by militants in the Sinai.


Jan 11 Two more headless bodies found in Shaykh Zuwayd in the Sinai, presumably victims of the militants.


Jan 10 @TheBigPharaoh: Reports that a bomb is currently being defused near the Jewish synagogue in downtown Cairo.



Jan 10 Conscript wounded near #Arish – shooter unidentified #Egypt


Jan 9 Christian families in the #Sinai dwindle from 650 to 200 because of attacks by Islamic terrorists.*Mideast%20Brief&utm_campaign=2014_The%20Middle%20East%20Daily_1.9.15



Jan 9 Security called to check for explosives in prime minister’s car


Jan 6 Egypt’s army has killed 14 terrorists in raids in the Sinai between Saturday and Monday (yesterday)


Jan 6 Two bodies found; thought to be shot by militants, one south of Arish and one south of Rafah.



Jan 6 Two policeman guarding a church on the eve of Coptic Christmas were shot by masked gunmen


Jan. 5 Thirteen Copts were released in Libya and Libyan government said it will facilitate their return to Egypt. Claims they were not kidnapped by Islamic militants but by traffickers (smugglers). However, the other 7 Copts are not accounted for.


Jan 5 Two arrested for making explosives (and 3 others being investigated) in a plastics factory in #Sharqiyya


Jan 5 Egyptian police officer detained after killing two men on motorbikes at a checkpoint in Suez


Jan 5 Alleged State of ‪#Sinai twitter acct claims responsibility for IED that killed an Egyptian soldier yesterday.


Jan. 5 One policeman killed and 3 civilians injured after an attack by unknown assailants at a checkpoint in Mohandessin, Cairo,-civilian-killed-in-checkpoint-.aspx


Jan. 4 An American woman was found dead in Mahalla in the province of Gharbiyya

Jan. 4   ‪Egypt‘s Foreign Minister meets Bishop of Tanta about the kidnapped Christians in Libya; office in touch with local authorities & the Libyan government to secure their lives.


Jan 4 A soldier was killed disabling explosive devices in Shaykh Zuwayd and two officers and a soldier were injured.


Jan 3 Thirteen Coptic workers kidnapped in Libya, allegedly by Ansar al-Shariah (see later posts) That is in addition to 7 others kidnapped last week.


Jan 3 Palestinian boy shot by Egypt’s border guards trying to enter Sinai illegally and 3 Palestinians arrested also attempting to enter illegally.



Jan 2   ‪#Giza ‪#Egypt – 2 bombs defused outside cinema & shopping mall. Bombs had nails, sulfur, gnpwdr + a SIM card remotely. ‪ 


Jan 2 Second bomb found near Cairo Mall on al-Haram St.


Jan 2 A security checkpoint was attacked with an RPG west of Rafah in the Sinai.


Jan. 2 A bomb exploded as a police car passed by in Alexandria


Jan 2 Pro-Morsi demonstrations blocked the road near the Cairo Mall and demonstrators burned a police car.


Jan 1 President Sisi called for religious freedom.



Dec. 31 Army has killed 13 terrorists in raids in the #Sinai from Sat. to Wed.


Dec 30 16 new tunnels from Gaza to Sinai were discovered this week #Egypt



Dec. 30 4 bombs defused near Marqosiyya Church and the court of appeals in Beni Suwayf


Dec 29 North Sinai governor says the buffer zone will increase to 5 km. (was originally 500 meters)



Dec. 26 Roadside bomb kills 2 soldiers in ‪#Egypt‘s Sinai ‪ 


Dec 25 Egypt’s army plans to build an international airport in the mid-Sinai.الهيئة-الهندسية–بدأنا-دراسات-لإنشاء-مطار-دولى-فى-وسط-سيناء-/2002793#.VJv7KsDA


Dec. 24 Jihadists release video of executions


Dec. 19 Egypt’s government says 2 bombings foiled, 9 ABM terrorists killed in North ‪#Sinai | ‪ 


Dec. 18 9 terrorists killed, and 12 arrested in Sinai raid according to authorities.


Dec. 17 Egypt’s army has killed 17 militants in the last 3 days in the Sinai


Dec. 17 40 students in #Egypt‘s police academy dismissed for fighting in clashes pro-#Morsi or had #Ikhwan relatives.


Dec. 16 ‪#Egypt|ian court rejects lawsuit filed against ‪#Ikhwan to confiscate their money to rebuild what they burnt over the past yr.حكم-يرفض-تحميل-الإخوان-قيمة-إحراقهم-للمنشأت-العامة-.html


Dec. 14 Three detained, 2 w. British citizenship for allegedly discussing sabotage at Metro #Egypt


Dec. 14 Claims that support for Islamic State is growing from the tough Sinai campaign. (True that IS flags spotted at demos)



Dec. 14 Two policemen killed in drive-by shooting in #Sinai #Egypt


Dec. 12 Mosque preacher/ Rafah: People of West Bank are people of security coordination [with Israel]; don’t belong to Prophet Mohammed’s followers.



Dec. 11 12 militants killed and 70 arrested by #Egypt‘s military in the #Sinai


Dec. 10 ‪#Egypt ‪#MOI says 15 “Brotherhood” students arrested in ‪#Minya after they attacked campus security (AR) ‪#MB ‪ …


Dec 10 The UK embassy suspended services on Sunday due to security concerns and was still not open and not saying much more (Wednesday) and the Canadian embassy also closed. (Other reports referred to Australian embassy issuing warnings regarding ISIS attacks; the US embassy had a heightened alert due to the release of the report on torture by the CIA under George Bush.



Dec. 9 Pres. Sisi reduced nighttime curfew hours in the Sinai – now 7 pm. to 6 am. Instead of 5 pm. to 7 am.


Dec 9 Another IED explodes in #Abbasiyya, #Egypt


Dec 8 Delta-bound trains stop in Egypt for suspicion of bomb on board.


Dec. 7 Hamas’ Abu Marzouk has called for a committee to examine Egypt’s claims of interference in its affairs.


Dec. 7 4 Muslim Brotherhood leaders have received death sentences which were referred to the Grand Mufti (he must approve all death sentences. These may be appealed.


Dec 7 The UK embassy in Cairo closed (temporarily) due to security concerns


Dec. 6 Police conscript injured in the face when IED went off in Rafah.


Dec. 6 Khairat al-Shater’s son-in-law Ahmed Tharwat Abd al-Hamid was arrested in Cairo after he arrived from Qatar


Dec. 6 Morsi’s defense team (which claims criminals or bedouin let Morsi and other Ikhwan leaders out of jail along with 11,000 prisoners in 2011) – has added the alleged SCAF leaks to evidence.


Dec. 6 Seven jihadists, including Adel Habara were sentenced to death for the killing of 25 policemen in the Sinai in August of 2013 near the border.


Dec. 5 Two militants killed as security forces were conducting a raid on suspected terrorist hideout in northern ‪#Sinai ‪


Dec 5 Around 50 protesters today on a square near Tahrir in ‪#Cairo, ‪#Egypt were demonstrate against the government. They left a bomb, police defused it before explosion.


Dec. 5 Yusuf al-Qaradawi has been listed by Interpol as “wanted” by the Egyptian government


Dec 4 Two men who were kidnapped by Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis were found dead north of Shaykh Zuwayd, in the Sinai today.


Dec. 4 Egypt will try those responsible for killing Shiites in Egypt on June 23rd 2013 in a mob attack in Abu Mussalam. Some have blamed salafi anti-Shi`I propaganda for that attack which took place under Pres. Morsi’s rule


Dec. 4 Second phase of Rafah borderline evacuation starts



Dec. 4 A police officer was injured in his face & the rest of his body while attempting to defuse a bomb, that went off around Ain-Shams University today.


Dec. 4 An officer and conscript were injured at the Behaira checkpoint.إصابة-ضابط-ومجند-في-اقتحام-كمين-بالبحي/


Dec. 4 Attackers broke into Suez Canal authority building #Ismaillya – 1 of them killed, 1 injured #Egypt


Dec. 3 82 additional Sinai-Gaza tunnels have been found in the last week.


Dec. 2 Reported today that back on Nov. 12th, terrorists had taken over an Egyptian missile vessal and planned to attacks Israeli targets in the Mediterranean sea. Another boat gave chase, 8 were killed (reported missing at the time)



Dec. 2 The bodies of 6 Shaykh Zuwayd residents were found – they had been shot.


Dec. 2 Ikhwan and pro-Morsi killed 11 policemen in ‪#Kerdasa & mutilated their bodies in 8/2013. Today the court gave death sentences for 185 persons charged. ‪


Dec. 1 Badie received a three year sentence for insulting the court.


Dec. 1 On the Mubarak acquittal, a possible appeal and the issues of non-accountability by other officials.


Dec. 1 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis takes credit for killing Apache Corp. American employee William Henderson. He was reported dead back in August.


November 2014


Nov. 30 – Dec. 1 Students in various universities and others are protesting against the Mubarak verdict. Police used tear gas to disperse some of them.



Zeinobia (summary) Some of the media stated those protesting were Islamists or anti-coup, however some are 6th of April youth, Strong Egypt and the Constitution party. (Reminder: the Muslim Brotherhood politicians had, during its tenure, rejected the trials of killings of the revolutionaries and only now calls for trials of Mubarak and Sisi).

Nov. 30 Students at #Alexandria University protest verdict excusing Mubarak & against ‘military rule’ #Egypt



Nov. 30 Ikhwan students destroy administrative offices of Zagazig University, Egyptموجز-المحافظات-طلاب-الإخوان-يحطمون-المبنى-الإدارى-بجامعة-الز/1972677#.VHsz2jHF_dc



Nov. 29 State of ‪#Sinai – new name of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis claimed responsibility for Cairo, Qalyubia and Arish attacks. The mainland attacks were carried out by affiliated Martyr Abu Obayda al-Masry Platoon (Abu Obayda al-Masry was ABM’s Mohamed al-Sayed Mansour al-Toukhy: behind Jan 24 Cairo bombing, gunned down in Jisr al-Suez on Mar 11)


Nov. 29 Muslim Brotherhood joined in the anti-Mubarak verdict protests and violence began


Nov. 29 Protests at Tahrir began against the verdict which overturned cases against Hosni Mubarak for the death of protesters.


Nov. 28 224 arrested – Egypt’s interior ministry says it has foiled a plan to wreak havoc in Egypt


Nov. 28 Egypt’s security has captured Abdullah Shehata, the Ikhwan’s top economic official, #Morsi’s IMF point man


Nov. 28 March in Matariyya dispersed and one man is killed.


Nov. 28 Small Islamist rallies were held in Kafr al-Sheikh, Bahaira Alexandria and Minya. Shops of Copts were vandalized in Malawi.


Nov. 28 4 dead so far (the incident below and above) as Salafists protest in Egypt


Nov. 28 Unknown gunmen shoot and kill a general and wound two others in Jisr al-Suez


Nov. 27 Three bodies of bedouin found shot in the head south of al-#Arish



Nov. 27 #AjnadMisr promises more attacks in #Egypt.  Large claims what was a very small group.


Nov. 27 4 days of civil disobedience & strikes in al-Qusair & Ras Ghurayb over plan to divide #RedSea governorate–Red-Sea-cities-over-plans-t.aspx


Nov. 26 Unidentified men shot a police officer in #Fayyoum on Wednesday.


Nov. 26 The Egyptian government opened the border crossing at Rafah which has been closed for one month.


Nov. 26 Gunmen killed 3 police traveling in a pickup truck in al-Arish. ttp://–Egyptian-police-in-Sinai.aspx


Nov. 25 Egyptian forces killed 5 members of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis and injured 4 others south of Shaykh Zuwayd . The attacks were carried out by Apache aircraft.


Nov 25   Prosecutor-general charges 13 from Tanta w. forming a terrorist cell linked to ISIS


Nov. 25 A bomb exploded near a school in Hada’ek alQubba Cairo, and there were no injuries.


Nov. 24 Ikhwan back Salafist protests for Friday’s Islamic Identity event (but Nour Party do not)


Nov. 23 Min. of Interior announces that a body found at a bombing site in al Wasta in Beni Suwayf (the bomb went off Saturday night) was that of a Muslim Brotherhood member, Mohamed Abdul Moneim


Nov. 22 #Egypt‘s army discovered 7 more tunnel openings in #Rafah #Egypt #Sinai #Gaza


Nov. 22 Sharqiya trains stopped because of an explosion on the tracks in Bilbis.


Nov. 22 7 militants were killed in Shaykh Zuwayd and al-Arish – The military killed 2 on Friday night in Shaykh Zuwayd who were planting explosives. 20 arrested Arish & 11 in Shaykh Zuwayd


Nov. 22 Bomb explodes in front of alNur Mosque in Matariya. No injuries.


Nov. 21 Nov 21 Al Azhar condemned the carrying of the Quran in protests (as is to occur on Nov. 28th)


Nov 21 Pro-#Morsi protester in #Matariyah  chant for #ISIS and raised its flag yesterday:


Nov. 21 The Muslim Brotherhood says it made mistakes without specifying what they are and calls for unity


Nov. 21 Arrests after antigovt. #Ikhwan protests in several cities.


Nov. 20 Mohammad Ali #Bishr, #Ikhwan leader  detained for 15 days, charged with spying & belonging to #MuslimBrothers    #Egypt


Nov. 20 Eleven members of the Muslim Brotherhood from Kafr al-Sheikh were referred to military prosecutors in Alexandria for questioning about interrupting railway tracks (6 of them) and planting a sound bomb in a court (5 of them)


Nov. 20 #AjnadMisr claims responsibility for attack today near #Helwan University #Egypt


Nov. 19 Dispersal and arrests of protesters commemorating Mohammed Mahmoud clashes today in #Cairo #Egypt


Nov. 19 34 protesters in Alexandria were detained also celebrating the Mohammed Mahmoud clashes. Mahienour and 3 others including her lawyer were arrested briefly, then released.


Nov. 19 Egypt arrests #Syrian-returnee militant of al #Furqan & also 38 in #Gharbiya


Nov. 18 Reports about a) 10 killed in a “drone strike” in ‪#Sinai (but there are no drones, therefore this may have been an AT-802) & b) mortar hitting 7 civilians, members of a bedouin family & 3 militants killed by the army ‪#Egypt


Nov. 17 26 #MuslimBrotherhood arrested for violent actions including attempted murder of #Sisi supporter


Nov. 17 #Egypt may expand evacuation buffer zone fr. 500 to 1000 meters after discovering tunnel more than 800 meters long


Nov. 16 Raid on Sharqiyya farm, killing 1 #AnsarBaytMaqdis shows that these militants are on the mainland (not only in #Sinai) #Egypt


Nov. 16 #Egypt’s Army spoxmn: 3 killed in northern #Sinai & 23 others arrested, also in other governorates


Nov. 16 5 #Azhar students referred to military tribunal for arson #Egypt


Nov. 15 Dead body of a man in his 30s shot in the head was discovered in the desert near al-Arish


Nov. 15 The families of fisherman in Damietta (accused by security of being the attackers on Egypt’s naval ship and arms smugglers) proclaim their innocence, ask Sisi for release


Nov. 15 #Egyptian military’s video on the Sinai campaign


Nov. 13 – Attack on ship is part of full-fledged war on Egypt. Arms could have been for Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis


Nov 13    2 police offcrs & 3 soldiers killed N/ ‪#Sinai & bomb in underground Zeytoon station injures 16 ‪#Egyptانفجار-بمترو-أنفاق-القاهرة-واصابة-4-أشخاص.html


Nov. 13 Prosecution refers 12 alleged IS members to terrorism court in Egypt


Nov 13 #Egypt‘s army has captured #AnsarBaytMaqdis  Shura Council member, Radwan Ghanim Hassan


Nov. 13 ISIS leader Baghdadi announces and congratulates those joining ISIS in Egypt (and Yemen, KSA, Libya, Algeria


Nov. 13 More on the maritime attack on Egypt’s vessel


Nov. 12 Protests in Giza and clashes w. police. Atlantic Council’s Egypt blog reports this as “police invaded the village of Nahya” where Islamists were protesting. An April 6 youth member was shot. (showing alliance of Apr. 6 youth and Islamist protesters)



Nov 12 Gunmen in boats opened fire on #Egypt‘s naval vessel in #Mediterranean & 8 servicemen missing;_ylt=AwrBJSBC6WNUZHkAPg7QtDMD


Nov. 12 Gunmen kidnap son of Egyptian officer on his way to school in 6 October ‪ 


Nov 12 Primitive bomb on a public bus was defused in Jisr al-Suez


Nov. 11 bomb in Bani Suwayf & 2 other bombs are defused near city council building


Nov. 11 Min. of Interior says it will block protests planned by the Salafist Front on November 28


Nov. 11 Min. of Education spxman: 200 #Ikhwan (#MuslimBrotherhood) teachers to be fired due to their affiliation. #Egypt


Nov. 9 #Egypt‘s military kills 4 militants south of Shaykh Zuwayd  #Sinai


Nov. 9 For the third time, a twitter account with recording claims Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis has pledged to #ISIS Experts thought the two previous claims were false. #Sinai #Egypt

Recording is here:


Nov. 9 Al Azhar university to reopen dormitories which were involved in many protests of last year. They had been closed up to now & will house 30% fewer students this year.


Nov. 8 60 yr. old man dual US-Egyptian citizen who has taught in international schools was arrested for threats against US international schools



Nov. 8 Internat’l #MuslimBrotherhood sent funds to zakat committees to fund violence in #Egypt‘s universities


Nov. 8 New #jihadi|ist group threaten #Egypt‘s military


Nov. 7 3 killed & 8 wounded in incidents in different parts of Egypt – northeast Cairo, Fayoum and Isma’iliyya today.


Nov. 7 3 injured as bomb goes off near the Qubba presidential palaceحوادث/إصابة-٣-أشخاص-فى-انفجار-قنبلة-بجوار-قصر-القبة.aspx


Nov. 6 Bodies of 4 slain civilians found north of al-#Arish #Sinai #Egypt


Nov. 5 A storage place found in an apartment containing large amounts of explosives. Apartment owned by 2 Ikhwan Azhar students


Nov. 5 Police intervene to break up clashes between Ikhwan students and Falcon security guards at Zagazig University.


Nov. 5 About one hr. after the Menufiyya bombing, a bomb went off in a Cairo Metro station injuring three.



Nov. 5 A bomb killed 2 policemen and three others on a train in #Menufiyya #Egypt 15 injured injured today.


Nov. 4 Tribal (bedouin) leaders ask Egypt’s government (visiting as a commission) for a new city for the displaced, a raise in compensation for the evacuation, ambulances and more


Nov. 4 Bedouin group called Sons of Sinai declares war on Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis


Nov. 4 Egypt’s army kills 2 Ansar Bait al-Maqdis fighters



Nov. 3 More than 50 judges were suspended on Nov. 2 for signing a pro-Morsi statement in July 2013.


Nov. 3 The Army kills 3 militants in raids in Rafah and Shaykh Zuwayd, arrested 15 more, & seized weapons.–suspected-militants-as-Sisi-dispatches.aspx


Nov. 3 al-Azhar in Kafr al-Shaykh suspends preacher & professor Mahmoud Shaaban, for comments on #ISIS #Egypt



Nov. 3 An explosive device went off near where the Egyptian army was demolishing homes in Rafah, near the border. #Egypt #Sinai


Nov. 2 Army foils a bomb attack in the Sinai (one report said containing a quarter of a ton of explosives)

Another report says there were 2 bomb:



Nov. 2 Imams to be punished if tunnels found under their mosques #Sinai #Egypt


Nov. 1 Homemade bomb goes off under Ghamra bridge in Cairo as garbage collectors inspected it and were injured.


Nov. 1 Yasser Ali, spokesman for former President Mohammad Morsi was sentenced to six months in prison for assisting the flight of Hisham Qandil from prosecution. However, Ali has already served six months in detention.



Nov. 1 A cell of militants who traveled from Turkey to Syria for training & returned to Egypt were arrested in Damiett,a Egypt


October 2014


Oct. 31 #AnsarBaytMaqdis‘ propaganda video on its campaign in #Sinai (1st bombing scene is from #Iraq and spliced in #Egypt \


Oct. 31 Eight masked men on motorcycles threw Molotov cocktails at the Faysal police station in Giza



Oct. 31 Reports of an IED exploding on/nr #Arish airport road in North #Sinai leaving 6 soldiers seriously woundedننشر_أسماء6_مصابين_فى_انفجار_مدرعة_جنوب_العريش_بينهم_ضابطان/1931018#.VFQdNig0x6k

That injury count was expanded to 7 – two officers and 5 soldiers


Oct. 31 Curfew now operating in north Sinai from 5 pm to 7 am.


Oct 31 Some support for ISIS growing among salafists in Egypt, even as al-Azhar denounces the organization.


Oct. 31 #Ikhwan demonstrate in  #Kafr ElDawwar, chanting #Morsi to return victorious #Egypt


Oct. 30 Former intelligence officer is sentenced to one year in prison for revealing secrets “damaging to national security”


Oct. 30 #Egypt bans pro-Morsi (pro-#MB) pressure group.


Oct. 29 In the evacuation zone a canal will be dug to prevent tunnels from the ‪#Gaza side to Sinai.  ‪#Egypt ‪الجيش-يطالب-سكان-الشريط-الحدودي-برفح-بالإخلاء-الفوري-خلال-48-ساعة

Oct. 29 First group evacuated ‪#Sinai/‪#Gaza border area – 880 homes to be evacuated. Have been promised compensation. ‪#Egypt


Oct. 29 Protesters at Al-Azhar Universities in Assiut shot fireworks & pelted police forces with rocks on Wednesday.- Egypt


Oct. 29 Female protesters outside of al-Azhar university demanding that a dormitory be opened were dispersed by police.



Oct. 29 President al-Sisi called for prompt compensation of Northern Sinai evacuees


Oct. 29 6 homemade bombs dismantled at Mansoura University – 80 students f/ Al-Azhar Uni blocked a main road–students-amid-clashes,-army-.aspx


Oct. 28 Two bombs go off in Sharqia, no causalities – News -‪ … ‪#Egypt ‪#Aswat_Masriya ‫#


Oct. 28 Four women seriously injured in #Rafah explosion (not many details) #Egypt


Oct. 28. Despite the misleading article title (& analysis!) people damaging certain public property will be tried in military court (under terrorism clauses of the Constitution)


Oct. 28 IED dismantled outside a private school in #Giza #Egypt today


Oct. 28 #Jihadists urge attacks against American schools and teachers, specifying #Maadi & #Jeddah. #Egypt #SaudiArabia


Oct 27 IED explosions at power station 10th of Ramadan #Egypt


Oct. 27 #Egypt‘s army killed 8 militants, including 1 involved in Friday’s large attack in the #Sinai


Oct. 26 Buffer zone of (only) 1.5 – 3 km to be created between Gaza #Sinai #Egypt


Oct. 26 Five year sentence for Muslim Brotherhood supporters for rioting in January


Oct. 26 Security forces ‘stormed’ (moved into) Al Azhar University’s women’s college to control demonstrations


Oct. 26 #Egypt‘s airstrikes kill 5 militants and wound 8 in the northern #Sinai


Oct. 25 Unidentified persons set fire to municipal garage & vehicles in #KafrAlDawwar (where woman gave birth on the street last wk. after being turned away from a hospital) #Egypt


Oct. 25 1 child killed & 6 injured in clashes in #Matariyya  #Egypt


Oct. 24 Gunmen killed a policeman in Sharqiyya. Have been a spate of such killings.


Oct 24 At about midnight the CSF police camp near Al-Arish international airport was attacked by missiles and dozens of conscripts were injured.


Oct. 24 Twenty-eight (25 at the time the story was written) army conscripts killed & 25 wounded in the car bombing at checkpoint #Sinai #Egypt

Ansar Bait al-Maqdis is suspected of the bombing:


Oct. 24 In an attack in Arish (separate from the car-bombing), 3 Egyptian security troops were killed when men opened fire on them.



Oct. 24 One child was killed when someone in civilian clothes shot at a pro-Morsi march in Ain al-Shams. His sister was reportedly arrested at the morgue.


Oct. 24 Masked men hurl Molotovs at 2 cars of #SaudiArabia‘s embassy in #Suez, setting them afire. #Egypt #MB


Oct. 23

‪#Cairo court May bombing suspect arrested in Arish in North ‪#Sinai



Oct. 23 A member of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis arrested as he withdraws 42,000 LE by the Bank Misr’s security in Arish


Oct. 23 Ajnad Masr claimed responsibility for the Cairo University bombing (despite other efforts foiled.)


Oct. 23 Soldier (a driver) killed, and another injured in an armed attack on their checkpost in Minya.موجز_المحافظات__استشهاد_شرطى_وإصابة_آخر_فى_هجوم_على_كمين_بال/1917931#.VEkitChOhPd


Oct. 23 Minister of Interior says plans for several huge explosions inside of Cairo University were discovered and foiled.


Oct. 22 Twenty-five members of the so-called Nasr City cell – members of the Gama’at Jihadiyya were sentenced, 12 of them receiving life in prison for planning terror attacks after the ’11 revolution.


Oct. 22 Gunmen opened fire on #IDF patrol near #Egypt‘s border this afternoon, wounding two.


Oct. 22 Explosion near #Cairo University has injured 10 (reports that a woman had to have her leg amputated & a man, his arm) #Egypt

It followed clashes at the university between Muslim Brotherhood students and police & the MB blocked the entrance, shot off fireworks and burned tires.إصابة-8-فى-انفجار-قنبلة-أمام-جامعة-القاهرة-#.VEgEBChOhPd


Oct. 22 Homemade bomb in Tanta wounded 2 citizens who were riding in a Tok Tok at the entrance of Kafr al-Zayat city when the bomb went off.‪#Egypt


Oct. 22 An unknown gunmen in a pick-up truck opened fire at a police checkpoint in Minya, ‪#Egypt, killed one policeman, wounded another via TNN


Oct. 21 5 masked gunmen drove to Mobinil in ‪#Helwan, broke in, fired in the air, then set fire to it & drove offمصدر-أمني-5-مسلحين-وراء-اقتحام-فرع-موبينيل-وحرقه-بحلوان


Oct. 21 ‪#Sinai-based militant group Ajnad Masr announced revenge against authorities 4 on Oct14 at faculty of engineering, Alexandria Uni ‪#Egypt


Oct. 20 Female students’ protest dispersed at al #Azhar & small #Islamist protests at #Cairo University #Egypt


Oct. 19 Roadside bomb explodes killing 7 (two officers, five regular troops) wounding 6 in ‪#Egypt|ian army vehicle.


Oct. 18 Someone threw 10 molotov cocktails off a bus near Kasr al-Aini #Cairo #Egypt


Oct. 18 Clashes between allegedly Ikhwan students and police/security in several universities: Dakahliya, Tanta, Cairo University’s medical school. 29 arrested.


Oct. 18 #Egypt‘s security forces arrest 52 in 8 terrorist cells, impounding weapons, explosives & money


Oct. 18 2 dead, 2 injured and 2 still missing as #Egypt|ian army destroyed tunnel at al-Barahma nr. #Rafah #Sinai #Egypt


Oct. 17 Report on attacks on Copts from 2013 – 2014 has been published.


Oct 17 #Egypt arrests commander of #AnsarBaytAlMaqdis  #Sinai


Oct. 17 RPG attacks kill two policeman in Egypt’s #Sinai according to state TV ttp://


Oct. 16 bombs in Tanta leave 18 injured and 3 dead


Oct. 16 Policeman and restaurant worker injured when 2 sound bombs went off near a Sufi shrine


Oct. 14 Homemade bomb explodes nr. Supreme Court injuring 12 – would have been much worse in the day hours #Egypt


Oct. 14 Two policemen wounded in Alexandria University clashes, 37 arrested – News – ‪#Aswat_Masriya ‪ … ‪#Egypt ‫#


Oct. 14 Bomb explodes near al-Arish International Airport following targeting of gas pipeline to Jordan in Egypt.


Oct. 14 Qaradawi says IS’s Baghdadi is a former Muslim Brotherhood member


Oct. 14 Egyptian army kills second Ansar Bait al-Maqdis leader, ‪ 


Oct. 13 Police will be stationed inside university campuses after clashes with private security company Falcon ends with retreats and destruction of the company’s (and university) property.


Oct. 12 Three more bodies found in al-Arish



Oct. 11 Egypt’s forces kill top jihadist in Sinai ‪ 


Oct. 11 78 students arrested after university protests as the universities open for the year. Many belong to Students Against the Coup



Oct. 10 Egypt’s army has killed 21 terrorists in an operation from Oct. 3 – Oct 10



Oct. 8 ‪#Egypt‘s army forces captured & reportedly destroyed a weapons cache belonging to ‪#AnsarBaytAlMaqdis today. ‪ 


Oct. 8 Security forces claim that they have killed a top leader, Abu Usama al-Masri of the Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis


Oct 7 Egyptian army kills 16 militants in the north Sinai


Oct 7 Bomb explodes inside #Cairo courtroom. 2 police detained for negligence #Egypt


Oct 7 Egyptian army kills 16 militants in the north Sinai


Oct 7 Bomb explodes inside #Cairo courtroom. 2 police detained for negligence #Egypt



Oct. 6 Egypt’s security forces arrest 4 who were recruiting for ISIS


Oct. 6 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis airs video showing the 5 civilian captives (3 reported as beheaded yesterday) #Sinai #Egypt Also see:


Oct. 6 Boy killed in North ‪#Sinai blast – News – ‪#Aswat_Masriya ‪ …



Oct. 5 Security is close to hunting down the commander of the Ajnad Misr (supposedly based in Giza & Cairo) in Upper Egypt


Oct. 5 RT #AnsarBaytMaqdis kills 2 for spying for #Israel & 1 for spying for #Egypt‘s army. #Sinai


Oct.4 Youm7: ‪#Egypt forces doing all they can to keep Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis from holding ‪#Eid gathering in ‪#Sinai ‪ 


Oct. 2 Ikhwan march in Alexandria to restore Morsi


Oct. 2 Anonymous gunmen abduct Sufi leader in Shaykh Zuwaid (Sinai) Egypt


Oct 2. Woman injured at bombing in front of the criminal investigation building in Mahalla


Oct. 2 top jihadi operative killed in the Sinai – from Ansar Beit al-Maqdis


Oct. 2 Bomb found under a car parked near the Shubra al-Khaima police station


Oct. 2 Bomb explodes near water/harbor police station in Gharbiyyaأخبار-مصر/انفجار-قنبلة-بجوار-قسم-شرطة-المسطحات-ا/


Oct. 2 Explosion in Gharbiyya governorate building injures civilians who were transferred to hospital

Also a device explodes near the judges club in Maadi


Oct. 2 bomb explosion in Mahalla al-Kubra injures a child


Oct. 2 bomb explodes at an electricity tower in Salheya, Sharqiyya


Oct. 2 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis leader threatens the Egyptian ministry of the interior during the Eid, saying “you will be slaughtered like sheep.”


Oct. 2 401 prisoners pardoned for Eid & 145 were pardoned conditionally


Oct. 2 Bomb planted near railway tracks makes trains stop near agricultural road of Qalyubiyya – not lethal, but planted to create havoc


Oct. 2 Clashes in Bahaira between police and Ikhwanاشتباكات-بين-الأمن-وأنصار-الإخوان-في-ح/



Oct. 1 Situation of the Copts in northern Sinaiأقباط-شمال-سيناء-بين-الخطف-والذبح-وال/


Oct. 1 Police found bombs in the Metro stations which had no explosives but had electric connectionsشرطة_النقل__العثور_على_3_قنابل_وهمية_بمحطات_الخط_الأول_للمتر/1889528


Oct. 1 Two bombs explode near a hospital in Kafr Zayatانفجار_قنبلة_ثانية_بجوار_مستشفى_كفر_الزيات/1888941

September 2014


Sept. 29   The Church takes an allegedly kidnapped Coptic woman (Samalot) to a monastery until things calm down (in the wake of Min. of Interior claiming she converted & she had called him a liar )


Sept. 29 Judge orders release on bail of 21 Ikhwan members in Aswan who had been accused of participating in Rabaa violence


Sept. 27 A primitive bomb on railway tracks of Banha-Zagazig


Sept. 27 The allegedly kidnapped Coptic woman in Samalot saying the Min. of Interior is a liar – that she is still a Christian


Sept. 27 A bomb placed under small bridge in Qalubiyya was defused



Sept. 26 Clash between Ikhwan and non-Ikhwan in Fayyoum and one man shot and woundedإصابة_مواطن_بطلق_خرطوش_فى_اشتباكات_عناصر_الإخوان_والأهالى_با/1882147#.VDF-qChOj7Q


Sept. 26 Ikhwan clash with the police in Matariyya and clashes also in Helwan


Sept. 25 Bomb explodes near military tanks in Sheikh Zuwayd



Sept. 23 RT Another bomb on the highway btw #ShaykhZuwayd and #AlArish #Sinaiانفجار_عبوة_ناسفة_على_طريق_العريش__الشيخ_زويد_دون_خسائر_بشري/1877867


Sept. 22 1 person was killed in Nahya during clashes between police and pro-Morsi.


Sept. 23 RT Another bomb on the highway btw #ShaykhZuwayd and #AlArish #Sinaiانفجار_عبوة_ناسفة_على_طريق_العريش__الشيخ_زويد_دون_خسائر_بشري/1877867


Sept. 22 1 person was killed in Nahya during clashes between police and pro-Morsi. ‪#Egypt


Sept. 22 Seven members of #AnsarBaytalMaqdis killed south of #ShaikhZuwayd #Sinai #Egypt


Sept 21 5 (although report says 4) simultaneous sound bombs went off in Tanta and Mahalla. Ajnad Masr claimed responsibility for a bomb which exploded in front of the Foreign Ministry in Cairo killing 2 police. One of them was a witness in the trial against Morsi. 4 schools were evacuated near by. Also a military aircraft crashed in Fayyoum killing 6 soldiers.   Also a bomb defused at the electricity tower in al-Ayyat Giza.


Sept. 21 Explosion hits railway tracks in Sharqiyya for the 3rd time since last night


Sept. 20 16 escaped a police station in Mahalla & 6 recaptured on Friday


Sept. 20 15 escaped a police station in #Gharbiya & 5 of them were recaptured Friday #Egypt


Sept. 19 37 Muslim Brotherhood members arrested at protests in different areas of the country.


Sept. 19 Clashes between pro-MB and police in Haramاشتباكات_عنيفة_بين_الإخوان_وقوات_الأمن_فى_شارع_المطبعة_بالهر/1871491#.VBxVOChOj7Q


Sept. 19 Another decapitated body of 35 year old man found in Sinai – near Shaykh Zuwayd


Sept. 17 Four militants killed, 21 others arrested during an army raid in ‪#Egypt‘s ‪#Sinai: MENA – ‪ 


Sept. 15 Ministry of Interior says it arrested 4 terrorist cells


Sept. 15 Six police were killed on the Rafah-Arish road #AnsarBaytalMaqdis

#Sinai #Egypt


Sept. 14 7 members of #AnsarBaytalMaqdis killed on Sun. #Sinai #Egypt


Sept. 12 IS spreading into Sinai as Egyptian general claims that 500 out of 8000 militants remain in Sinai


Sept. 11 Bomb exploded near Police Force Club in Tanta, Egypt. Several injuries.


Sept. 11 12 members of Damanhour Ghosts cell have been arrested.


Sept. 10 7th beheaded body found nr. Shaykh Zuwayd, Sinai. Other sources (Haaretz) claim there was a note next to the body saying this was a “Mossad agent”


Sept. 10 Unknown assailants kill the son of Egypt’s appeals court


Sept. 9 On the treason and espionage case of Mohammed Morsi (because it relates to the Muslim Brotherhood’s supporter, Qatar.


Sept. 8 Police officer killed, 10 injured in explosion in ‪#Egypt‘s North ‪#Sinai.


Sept. 4 #AnsarBaytalMaqdis claims responsibility for killing of 11 security on Tues #Sinai #Egypt


Sept. 3 Trial of Ansar Beit al-Maqdis operatives has begun – many details here (and accusations too)



Sept. 3 Ikhwan announce a new cell Kata’ib al-qasas bi-ardh al-kanana (after Helwan brigades caught)



Sept. 3 Gunmen shoot a police sergeant in al #Arish #Sinai #Egypt



Sept. 2 Bomb near al-Wefaq #Sinai kills 11 #Egyptian police and wounds 2 Also stampede kills 9 when families of military cadets try to move into anarea #Ismailiyya


August 2014


Aug 31 joint police, army raid in ‪#Arish kills main suspect in May 2013 police kidnapping [AR]:محافظات/أخبار-وتقارير/مقتل-المتهم-الرئيسي-في-واقعة-خطف-الجنود-السبعة-إبا.aspx



Aug 31 Two more beheaded bodies found in Mahdia village south of the #Sinai allegedly by Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis Beheading is symbolic act; false interp of shari`ah and depersonalization.


Aug 29 Egypt jihadist group claims beheading of four men in Sinai ‪  ‪


Aug 24 ‪#Egyptian army conscript shot in the head in North Sinai ‪ … Aug 22 Three electric transformers attacked in ‪Minya ‪ 


Aug 22 3 members of #MuslimBrotherhood-linked cell arrested #Egypt


Aug 21 Egypt army bombs an Ansar Bait al-Maqdis weapons storage facility in Sinai


Aug. 21 4 Ikhwan set a police truck on fire (then detained?)


Aug. 21   A bomb in Masr Gadida Ave.’s metro – 6 wounded, no word on fatalities as yetجريدة_التحرير_|_انفجار_قنبلة_بترام_مصر_?src=التحرير&ref=home



Aug 21 People set tires on fire of the railroad tracks in Sharqiyya


Aug 21 6 soldiers hurt on Shakykh Zuwayd highway .


Aug 20. Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis released a new video entitled “Oh Soldier”



Aug 19 Four beheaded corpses found in ‪#Sinai; ‪#Egypt army kills three militants and arrests 30 suspects ‪ 


Aug. 19 New release by Jamaat Ansar Bayt al Maqdis entitled “O soldier”



Aug 18 Video from #AnsarBaytAlMaqdis threatens #Egypt‘s military & police.

Aug. 17 Small bomb explodes outside police academy in Abbasiyya

Aug 17 Minister of Interior Mohamed Ibrahim held a meeting with his assistants to discuss the video released on YouTube by a group which called itself Brigades of Helwan. A security source said Saturday that the video was broadcasted from Arab Ghoneim district in Helwan and 10 suspects were arrested. (al-Shorouk)

August 17 Abu Rukba of #AnsarBeitMaqdis entered the Sinai from tunnel and was arrested #Egypt



Aug 17   Masked men attack the Maadi municipal building with Molotov cocktails Saturday and 6 bombs were defused in Giza and Cairo yesterday

6 bombs diffused in Cairo and Giza Saturday


Aug. 16 There was a bomb in downtown Katameya this evening. Area was blocked off. ‪#Cairo


August 16 Sectarian clashes in Sohag after a school was named after a christian soldier killed in Farafra ‪ 


August 16 Acts of sabotage in Fayyoum resulted in destruction of 40 power transformers


August 15 – clashes between Ikhwan and non-Ikhwan civilians in Mohandiseen


August 15 – Protests by Ikhwan/pro-Ikhwan in various areas of Egypt (but not the Sinai). Ikhwanweb claims that hackers made anti-govt. statements on 2 radio stations”for 1st time in history”


August 14 Helwan Armed Militias posts its introductory video


August 14 3 primitive bombs defused today at Manshiya park east of Alexandria. 2 others also defused near Raml Station and Central Bank.


August 14 Gunmen kill a police sergeant in #Helwan then flee.


August 14 Governorate office in Ein Shams was attacked by approx 40 masked men with molotovs. Burnt it down and burnt a government bus as well.\


August 14 A rocket fired from Gaza hit a house in al-Mattalah Sinai killing a 13 yr. old girl & injuring 2 other children. Hamas denies any rockets fired fr. Gaza.



August 13 2 bombs planted near petrol station in Madinat Nasr were defusedتفكيك-عبوتين-ناسفتين-بجوار-شركة-بترول-في-مصر.html


August 12 2 electric towers were blown up by saboteurs today #Egypt …


August 12 5 more tunnels destroyed & militants caught trying to enter #Egypt fr. #Gaza (1664 tunnels now destroyed.) …


August 12   9 militants killed in #Sinai and 15 arrested.  #Egypt


August 11 Egyptian intelligence interviews ISIL cell in #Egypt – originally Hazemoon group


August 10 Lawyer, al-Wahsh files case to dissolve marriage of Ibrahim Eissa on grounds of apostasy


August 9 Admin. Court ruled for dissolution of Freedom & Justice party and confiscating its assets


August 9 Egyptian army announces it has killed 60 militants in #Sinai campaign over the last 12 days and arrested 102 others


August 9 – During a “peaceful” march, the Ikhwan attack, then drag, and then cut a man’s ear.


August 8 Ikhwan protests and Islamist protestor killed in clashes amidst them


August 7 Photo of arrest of the leader of the Sword Group in the Sinai. Had letters fr. al-Qa’ida concerning attacks on tourist sites.


August 7 Reports of Apaches hovering over al-Arish & a visit by the Min. of Defense.


August 6 Natural gas pipeline bombed near Altuwaiel village, in northern Sinai (has already been bombed many times before).


August 4 Reports from Copts in Samaloot, Menya saying extremists r attacking them and their homes and businesses. They have been calling police.



Aug 2 Leader of Menaie tribe kills 4 militants as they try to assassinate him. Sinai


July 2015


July 31 One successful escape & an attempted escape followed by a shake-up in Min. of Interior


July 30 3 suspected militants died when explosive device detonated in their car #alSaf #Giza #Egypt


July 30 Explosive device blew up on Shaykh Zuwayd – #Rafah highway. #Egypt


July 30 Sharqeya chief of police says the Ikhwani they arrested yesterday is responsible for leaving explosives in areas near Ikhwan protests.



July 29 RT Terrorist cell captured in Sharqiyya Egypt in contact with AlQaeda abroad.


July 28 Rocket attack killed a girl and wounded another girl in Shaykh Zuwayd, Sinai


July 28 MBs reportedly used a 300-man protest in Giza as cover for attacking a police captain’s home: ‪ …


July 27 Unknown assailants have blown up an electricity pylon in Qalubiya governorate, the 7th such incident in two weeks, officials say.


July 26   Twenty Ajnad Misr members charged by Egypt’s chief prosecutor on Saturday and soldiers killed 12 militants #Sinai


July 26, 2 children killed, 3 injured in mortar explosion in al-Mahdiya Rafah #Sinai #Egypt


July 26, 2014 6 RPGs fired at a mosque in al Tawil ‪#Sinai ‪#Egypt ‪ 


July 24 (2014) A bomb exploded and another was defused in Cairo-Alexandria desert road. No casualties reported


July 23   Details of the Wadi al-Gadid attack are announced by the military – 4 trucks of militants had attacked.



July 21   A group of Muslims are trying to take over land of the monastery of Deir Abu Makar at Wadi Natrun. Reported on ON TV – Gaber al-Armouty and


July 20 8 killed & 28 wounded in military camp Sinai & al-#Arish. Extremist anti-regime violence continues


July 19 Twenty-one Egyptian troops killed at checkpoint in Wadi al-Gadid (western desert) by gunmen #Egypt


July 18 Head of electricity company in Ismailiyya says electric tower was exploded by a laser gun ( in terrorist attack)


July 18 One policemen killed by militants in Arish, North Sinai.


July 17 officer and a soldier injured in terrorist attack in Sheikh Zoweid, Sinai.


July 14 Gamaa Islamiyya closes its dialogue with Egypt’s government because of the arrests of Safwat abd al-Ghany (from its Shura Council) and 4 others trying to flee to the Sudan on Sunday.


July 14 ‪#Egypt says 40 militant cells busted since April – Authorities: ‪#MB mmbrs funded groups targeting security forces ‪ …


July 14 a hand grenade exploded inside a court in Gharbiya, ‪#‎Egypt – no injuries reported; 2 more devices diffused


July 14 Gamaa al-Islamiyya leader threatens #Egypt over seizure of Safwat Abd al-Ghany & 4 others who tried to flee to Sudan last Sunday


July 13 Rocket hit in front of supermarket & security office #Arish kills 7 & 1 officer #Egypt



July 12 Explosion at communications building in 6th of October #Egypt


July 11 MB leaders held 6 meetings abroad: ‪ … Working to build external pressure on ‪#Egypt, worried about UK inquiry.


July 11 Pro-Morsi, anti- fuel hike protests in Matariyya ended in clashes and 2 killed. Also protests in Alexandria (and dispersed by police)



July 9 Bomb hit a military armored vehicle in Rafah. A conscript was killed, 4 others injured. ‪  ‪#Egypt ‪#Sinai


July 8 Twenty Muslim Brotherhood supporters arrested in security forces raids across ‪#Fayoum. (Ahram)


July 8 Ikhwan and Black Bloc clash with people from Damanhour here:بالفيديو-جامعة-القاهرة-تبرعنا-لـتحيا/


July 7 Gunmen killed an officer in Damietta, Egypt who was in car with his fiancée. Not clear at first if this was criminal or political.


July 4 Bomb explodes near Tawhid Mosque in Port Said


July 4 Ikhwan decide to exhaust the police today with false bomb reports. 100s of false alarms reported to police throughout Egypt.


July 4   214 arrested yesterday in Muslim Brotherhood’s Day of Rage


July 4 A child was killed in Helmeyet al-Zaytoun in armed clashes between Ikhwan and police.


July 4 3 killed in Abu Kasah in Fayoum in a house believed to be used for bombmaking.


July 4 Terrorists used a poultry farm to make bombs (see above)


July 4 – A bomb exploded prematurely in an apartment in Fayoum, 6 were killed, among the dead was Fayoum MB leader Ahmed Arafa. ‪#Egypt


July 3 Bomb went off on Abu Qir train at Sidi Gabr in Alex – on which the poorest travel in from Alex to work and wounding 9, one child critically


July 3 Bomb Exploded near ‪#PrezPalace andother in ‪#PortSaid, and now Molotov fire on Mehwar Bridge ‪#Egypt


July 3 The Egyptian army killed 17 militants in northern Sinai in a series of crackdowns.


July 3 Would-be bomber is killed in ‪Kirdasa, other bombs in ‪Assiut ‪#Egypt ‪ …


July 2 A car bomb exploded in front of the military hospital in Abassiyya ‪#Egypt No casualties. ‪ …


June 2015


June 30 Two bombs were being detonated outside the Itahadiyya (Presidential) Palace in Cairo. One went off killed a policeman and wounded three others.  Attack by Ajnad Misr.


June 29 Jihadists in the Sinai killed 4 policemen today between Arish and Rafah in northern Sinai.



June 29 In 6th October City a bomb planted in a call center under an unfinished building went off and killed a girl and injured her parents.–October-City,-one-girl-dead.aspx


June 27 In an ‪Muslim Brotherhood protest today, raising Rabaa slogans & chanting against police & t/army “Officer [got] shot in his face in clashes with MB”


‪Warning issued by Ajnad Misr. For attack on June 30


June 18 Bomb at Shohadaa Metro Station injures 2 women ‪  ‪#Egypt


June 13 Police officer killed in Hada’iq al-Maadi during a Muslim Brotherhood protest


Jun 11 Unknown gunmen fired on a security truck in Arish wounding 3 persons including a civilian.


June 4 Egyptian army troops prevented an attack on a civil protection building in Arish by dismantling 3 barrels of explosives. Also army troops destroyed 7 tunnels in Rafah.



June 1 Six soldiers from border guard attacked in al-Wahat in the western part of the country by smugglers and outlaws


May 2014


May 30 Thoughts on Egypt’s cooperation with Israel in the Sinai and dedication to opposing terrorism


May 30 Huge tourism project is planned for the Sinai by Arabian Group for Development and Urban Progress


May 27 Two bombs found and defused in Minya and two in Fayoum


May n.d. 2014 Erick Stakelback explains why the Muslim Brotherhood are perceived as being moderates – their charming veneer, but share goals with other extremists. For ex. Morsi joined the MB when at USC in Los Angeles. And info. re. US groups with them. Granted this is a rather right wing presentation & audience.

May 23 1 CSF officer killed and 2 conscripts injured in North Sinai Al-Ahram.


May 23 Shadi al-Manaei of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis and three other associates killed in a drive-by shooting in al-Arish


May 21 9 wounded in bomb attack in #Arish (and child run over) #Egypt



May 20 Unknown assailants blow up gas pipeline near Areesh in Sinai. This is the 7th time since Morsi’s ousting.


May 20 3 soldiers killed by drive-by assailants near the protest of Al-Azhar students.

Video of aftermath




May 17, 2104 8 injured at a pro-Sisi rally when bomb went off at Ezbat al-Nakhl



May 16, 2014 Ikhwan burn the home of #Sisi supporter in a village in #Behaira #Egypt


May 15 #Ikhwan demonstrators smash 20 stores in #Cairo and 1 killed #Egypt


May 14 Two militants killed and 9 arrested in the Sinai and a car bomb was detonated by the CT unit



May 11 RT Attack on al-Sahel police station #Egypt


May 11 Arrested terrorists from Agnad al-Ard arrested in Imbaba & planned to blow up polling stations. Trained in bombmaking in Sharqiyya with 11 others. #Egypt


May 11 Raid on Shaikh Zuwaid in North #Sinai kills one army conscript #Egypt



May 11 Police rescued a policeman who had been attacked & kidnapped in Sharqiyya #Egypt



May 9 – reports that the Muslim Brotherhood planning protest?


May 9 Two bombs were defused at Jisr alSuez and the Ahmad Orabi bridge in Giza


May 8 Clashes at Al Azhar with Ikhwan students and police chiefs and riot police were called in


May 7 Police clash with unknown assailants who were firing on a tank in al-Arish.


May 7 Bomb defused in front of a bank in Zamalak. Another bomb defused in the Sadat Center in Menufiyya. ‪ …



May 5 Dakahleya police foil an alleged plot to bomb St. Demiana Monastery as well as power sources around the governorate.


May 5 Pro-Sisi event attacked with Molotov cocktails in Kafr Saad, Damietta #Egypt


May 5 Muslim Brotherhood students storm Cairo University legal affairs buildingAlso a bomb squad defused a bomb near AlAzhar’s main gate


May 4 #AlAzhar has expelled 79 students for violent activities on campus #Egypt


May 3 A bomb defused in al-Nasr street in Basateen #Egypt


May 2 Car exploded & reports of 1 dead in front of the Engineers’ Syndicate in Mohandiseen on Ramses St. or near Ramses station ‪#Egypt


May 2 2 killed, 3 injured in ‪#Alexandria clashes between protesters and security forces. At least 42 arrested across ‪#Egypt.


May 2 Three police injured in shooting in Helwan by Muslim Brotherhood protesters.


May 2 Bomb explosion targets bus in Sinai carrying employees in tourism industry. 3 injured. Man threw bomb at bus & it exploded killing him too


May 2 Army air strike kills five extremists in North ‪#Sinai‪ … ‪#


May 2 4 killed, 12 injured in 3 bombings – 2 were suicide bombings on a road from Sharm al-Shaykh and the 3rd was in Cairo near a courthouse.


May 2, 2 killed, 3 injured in ‪Alexandria clashes between protesters and security forces. At least 42 arrested across


May 1 Army air strike kills 5 extremists in North Sinai


April 2014


Apr. 30 3 policemen injured in clashes at Mansoura University


Apr 30 Junior policemen on strike at the Cairo airport express anger at arrival of special operations and tanks The protest law was applied to the 120 police, they were fired and 6 others arrested.



Apr. 29 Egypt’s army spokesman says 3 militants killed, 3 arrested in latest North Sinai operations ‪


Apr. 29 #MuslimBrotherhood supporter was killed yesterday in Damietta protest


Apr. 28 – The man whose hand-made bomb exploded at home injuring him, his friends and family is none other than al-Shater’s driver.


Apr. 28 Policeman injured in clashes with the Muslim Brotherhood in Minya


Apr. 28   Muslim Brotherhood prisoners to go on hunger strike on Wednesday


Apr. 28 Ikhwan threaten to publicly mobilize after their Supreme Leader Badie is sentenced to death.


Apr. 28 Police entered Alexandria University to break up clashes between demonstrators and campus security personnel.


Apr. 28 Egypt’s jihadists threaten Pepsi.


Apr. 28 Police clash with Muslim Brotherhood students at Assiut University.



Apr. 28 A bomb was found today inside car of an army officer in Bein al-Sarayat, #Giza & was defused. #Egypt


Apr. 27 Source at Min of Int claims death of 2 men in shootout w police. The 2 accused of murdering journalist Mayada.


Apr 27 Police dispersed a Muslim Brotherhood march in Matareya using tear gas and birdshot, 7 people were injured. ‪ 


Apr. 27 Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of al-Qa’ida expressed solidarity with Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood and called for AQ to kidnap Americans


Apr. 27 One family’s connection to Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis from a cell in Egypt


Apr. 27 Bomb explodes in Ikhwan home in Sharqiya [not Menya] injuring him,2 friends & 3 kids. Trying to make home-made bomb according to Internet instructions.


Apr 27

Six ‪#Sinai militants killed; Seven Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis members arrested ‪#ABAM ‪#Egypt ‪ 


Apr. 25 Clashes in Fayoum, leave 2 dead.


Apr. 24 Muslim Brotherhood supporter raped 6 year old boy because he ‘supported’ Gen. Sisi (by singing Teslam Ayadi)

The boy’s family was threatened by others in the Muslim Brothers’ family, after the rape and also before it, when they were trying to compel them to support the MB


Apr. 24 Seven Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis members arrested in Egypt


Apr 24 Prosecution orders the arrest of 33 from the violence in Aswan (earlier in the month)


Apr. 23 7 (6) militants wounded and 20 injured


Apr. 23 Egyptian authorities arrested a man accused of killing 4 Shiites [in July 2013], while attempting to escape to Libya ‪ 


Apr. 23 Teacher in Sharqiyya allegedly breaks the leg of a student who was singing a song for al-Sisi



Apr. 23

RT Police BG Ahmad Zaki & another officer assassinated in 6th October ‪#Egypt vid of car

‪ …



Apr. 22 #MuslimBrotherhood students at #Minya University firing at people.


Apr. 22 #MuslimBrotherhood students illegally close off  #AinShams University #Egypt

Apr. 21 Bomb found near an October church defused, ‪  ‪#Elwatannews

Apr. 19 10 extremists arrested and a bomb defused In Northern Sinai


Apr. 19 Azhar Muslim Brotherhood students set CBC’s broadcast car afire ‪ 


Apr. 18 #MuslimBrotherhood burned shops in Ezbat al-Nakhl and their march was dispersed. #Egypt #Ikhwan


April 18 Muslim Brothe

rorhood march burns a Sisi supporter’s house in Ezbet al-Nakhl, Cairo

Apr. 18 Muslim Brotherhood set fire to a balcony in Fayyoum during clashes with police



Apr. 17 Police fire tear gas at Ikhwan marching at Matariyya who respond by throwing bricks and stones


Apr. 17 Giza police conducted operations to arrest leaders of Agnad Masr in Kirdasa, Bulaq and other areas

Apr. 17 Leader of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis was arrested in the Sinaiسقوط-أبو-أنس-القيادي-بأنصار-بيت-المقدس/

Apr. 17 ‪Ikhwan leader arrested in ‪#Qena ‪#Egypt  ‪مصر–ضبط-قيادي-من–الإخوان–في-قنا

Apr. 16 A bomb explosion inside a tank wounds an Egyptian soldier in Arish

Apr. 15 Two were injured in a bomb planted on al-Faisal St. Haram, Giza (after Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis had promised many bombings on 4/15)

Apr 15 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis leader arrested after murder of policeman in al-Arish on Monday (14th)

Apr. 15

Investigators: Engineering students executed bomb attack at CairoUni that killed a senior MOI official 2 weeks ago ‪ 

Apr. 15 Mohamed Morsi’s release of dangerous prisoners in Egypt is linked to current violence there.

Apr. 14 28 Copts were reportedly abducted by extremists in Minya in the last 3 month, ransom reached 6M EGP, police inactive. ‪ …

Apr. 14 Ikhwan students clash with other students inside Zagazig university campus, throwing stones & police enter to stop it.

Apr. 14 al-Azhar University expels 52 students (for violent demonstrations inside of campus)

Apr. 14 Army troops supported police across fr. #Nahda in clashes with #Ikhwan today near and inside Cairo University, where a student in the Faculty of Science called Mohamed Adel Attia is reported dead i


Apr. 14 Khaled Hussein, reporter 4 t/daily Youm 7, was shot in the chest during the clashes in front of the university’s main gates.


Apr. 14 Bomb discovered in front of N. Giza court, Mohandiseen & defused #Egypt


Apr. 14 Mohammad Bakry Haroun was arrested on Apr. 12 in Cairo. He’s associated with the Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, part of the Nasr City network & accused of Dakahliya and Cairo bombings.


Apr. 13 The Muslim Brotherhood have reportedly moved their headquarters from London to Graz, Austria, following announcement of investigation into their activities in the UK

Apr. 13 #Nusra Front fighter (#Syria) planned attacks in #Egypt and has been arrested.


Apr. 13 #Egypt‘s army spokesman says 3 militants killed, 4 arrested in latest North Sinai operations

Also, armored trucks will be carrying recruits in the Sinai.

Apr. 13 Bomb found & defused, inside a church #Giza for Palm Sunday #Egyptحـوادث/حوادث-محلية/العثو

Apr. 12 Police arrested an 8-member cell of the Muslim Brotherhood called the Deterrence Battalion in Menufiyya

Apr. 12 RT #Ikhwan threw acid in the faces of police in #Fayoum #Egypt some injured

Apr. 12 – photo of municipality building burned by the Ikhwan back in August – in Montazah, Alexandria


Apr. 11 Explosive device defused in Sheikh Zuweid, North Sinai ‪ 

Apr. 11 Muslim Brotherhood attack police with weapons and try to set fire to a checkpoint. Police killed two of them in Gharbiyya.

Apr. 10 Granddaughter of Hassan al-Banna, a university professor struggles to protect the Muslim Brotherhood

Apr. 10 Committee leaves #Egypt with documentation of MuslimBrotherhood plotting in UK including Kemal Helbawi, N. Ibrahim and others

Apr. 10 Brotherhood’s leading businessmen, Youssef Nada claimed on AlJazeera that the Brotherhood has formed new secret leadership.

Apr. 10 An second explosion took place in al-Hasri square in 6th of October city just 50 meters away from the first explosion.

Apr. 10 A junior officer & policeman arrested for joining the jihadist group of Tharwat Shehata #Egypt

Apr. 9 Clashes today between ‪#MuslimBrotherhood (‪#Ikhwan) students and police in ‪#AlAzhar, ‪#AinShams, and ‪#Suez Canal universities.

Apr. 9 US designates Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis a ‪#terrorist group. Pretends not to notice connection with ‪#Ikhwan ‪#Egypt ‪ 


Apr. 8 Allegations in the trial of Mohammed Morsi and an explanation of his connections with Ayman az-Zawahiri via his brother Mohammed

Apr. 8 Muslim Brotherhood students with weapons and fire inside of Alexandria Universityطلاب-الإخوان-في-معركة-بالأسلحة-النارية-بجامعة-الإسكندرية-.html

Apr. 8 Four Islamist militants reportedly killed in North Sinai by Bedouin ‪ 

Apr. 8 Freedom and Justice Party (Muslim Brotherhood) posts a photo of students breaking the 2nd gate at al-Azhar

Apr. 8 #Azhar female students burn tires and burn Mustafa al-Nahhas road #Egypt

Apr. 8 12 homemade bombs found at #AinShams University and defused #Ikhwan ‘peace’ #Egypt—handmade-bombs-found-on-Ain.aspx

Apr. 7 Jihadists threaten protests on Sinai Liberation Day at Tahrir Square (Apr. 25)

Apr. 7 Al Azhar University dismisses 27 students for leading protests inside campus (with violence)

Apr. 7 Beltagy’s wife threatens al-Sisi

Apr. 6 #Egypt‘s university students were busy in 1,427 protests this fall — not in class

Apr. 6 #Egypt‘s Interior Ministry spokesman: Militants using foreign fighters who’ve been in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria in coordination with A #Ikhwan; and Ikhwan using students to engage in a 2nd type of violence –

Apr. 6 Prosecutor refers #Zawahiri (his brother) & 67 others to court for planning violent attacks.  #Egypt

Apr. 6 Clashes today at #Cairo University, #Ain Shams University and #AlAzhar University between police and #Ikhwan students. #Egypt

Apr. 5 A plot to target al-Gorah airport in #Sinai was thwarted yesterday #Egypt

Apr. 5 Violence broke out in Aswan at a reconcillation meeting on Friday between two families and continued through Saturday. The army spokesperson said there was Ikhwan influence in the clash, but haven’t seen details which prove that, yet. 23 killed, 40 wounded.

Apr. 4 Security forces dispersed protesters across Cairo today.

Apr. 4 Yesterday “gunmen killed 2 young men in the village of Mahdiya, accusing them of collaborating with the army.” ‪ 

Apr. 4 Clashes between #IIkhwan & police in Matariyya. Another ‘peaceful’ Friday. #Egypt

Apr. 3 Policeman shot and killed near #Rafah #Sinai #Egypt

Apr. 2 Three bomb explosions outside ‪#Cairo University, security found a 4th bomb. (Anti-coup blames army/police then backed off that claim)

Apr. 2 Police arrested 7 ‪#Ikhwan a few hrs. b4 bombings ‪#Egypt ‪ …

Apr. 1 #ikhwan allegedly attempted to murder #Coptic family and army officer son in #Sharqiyya #Egypt


April 1 #Ikhwan students at AinShams Uni beat up al-Fajr journalist, took his camera & threatened female journalist

April 1 #Ikhwan student demonstrators headed for the Egyptian Ministry of Defense

March 2014

Mar. 31 5 killed, 11 wounded and 79 arrested in terrorist Brotherhood protests ‪ 

Mar. 31 RT #Ikhwan‘s protesters burn cars in #Azhar garage #Egypt

Mar. 31 An Ikhwan cell has been arrested in Alexandria for allegedly planning to cut hands and feet of Sisi supporters.

Mar. 31  Clashes between police and ‪#Ikhwan in ‪#Minya. 1 police injured, 5 arrested ‪#Egypt ‪ 


Mar. 30 Members of Ansar al-Shari’ah fil Ard al-Kinana were arrested. They’ve taken credit for more than a dozen shooting incidents in Giza, Beni Suwayf and Sharqiyya

Mar. 30 Ikhwan students block Sudan St. behind Cairo University clashing with non-Ikhwan citizens and no police presence.طلاب-الإخوان-يقطعون-السودان-وغياب-ت/


Mar. 30 Violence escalated in front of Cairo University by Ikhwan students

Mar. 30 One killed, three more injured in an attack on a police bus western Sheikh Zuwaud today

Mar. 27 Mayada Ashraf, a journalist for al-Dostour was killed in Ain Shams. 4 others were killed (this reports 3) and 10 wounded.

Mar 27 Egyptians and Ikhwan clashed in Dakahliyya and police and Ikhwan clashed in Faisal st. al-Haram, Giza.   Shots were fired in clashes between Ikhwan and police in Mahalla. Ikhwan demonstrations in Qena and three demonstrations in Fayoum were dispersed by police by using tear gas; they also dispersed demonstrators in Madinat Nasr with tear gas.

Mar 27 Ikhwan fired at police in Helwan and police used tear gas. Heavy clashes.

Mar. 27 4 killed in clashes between armed MBs & security forces. Includes a journalist and a Coptic woman (stabbed) ‪ 

Mar 27 Persons unknown burned an #AlSisi campaign tent set up in Port Said

Mar. 26 – Field Marshall al-Sisi formally resigns as Min. of Defense, meets with the military and then announces his candidacy as President. Gen. Sedky Sobhy becomes Min. of Defense.

Mar. 26 1 killed and 30 injured at #Cairo Univ. and #Zagazig Univ.

Mar. 26 Ikhwan students demonstrating in front of Cairo University, chanting against army and police.

Mar. 25 A new Ikhwan movement called Execution claims it has kidnapped a policeman and have details about 5000 others.

Mar. 25 30 June investigative committee says Copts in Upper Egypt are still mistreated, suffering kidnappings and unable to rebuild burned churches.

Mar. 25 A bomb was found at the entrance to the police station at Shubra al-Khayma and was defused.

Mar. 25 Ikhwan destroyed army-run warehouse distributing food to the poor in #Fayyoum #Egypt


Mar. 25 Today unknown persons burned MobiNil’s tower in Bahaira


Mar. 25 #Ikhwan surround Helwan police station. Police fire shots in the air and disperse them.



Mar. 25.   ‪#Ikhwan supporter publishes call on FB for a Muslim Brotherhood army to confront ‪#Egypt‘s police & army


Mar. 25 12 injured as Ikhwan and police clash in Sharqiyya. Ikhwan torched police truck



Mar. 25. Ikhwan wearing masks with Rabaa sign burn the electricity main in Mahalla.


Mar. 25. Militants blow up gas pipeline again in southern Arish.


Mar. 24. #Bedouin killed by militants in #Sinai for cooperating with #Egypt‘s army/security.


Mar. 24. School in #Qalubiyya closed today when incendiary device discovered #Egypt


Mar. 24 Ikhwan burn a school to protest death sentences handed down by a judge in Minya.,7340,L-4502752,00.html


Mar. 24. Unknown gunmen (suspected to be Islamic militants) shoot and kill a policeman on his way to work in al-Arish.


Mar. 23. RT Two homemade bombs deactivated in #Cairo University.  #Egypt


Mar. 21 8 Ikhwan arrested during violent clashes in Suez. Ikhwan also throw fireworks on AlHaram St. in Giza. 1 killed in Haram, unconfirmed reports that one person killed in Alexandria where there were also clashes, and clashes in Bahaira, Minufiyya, Gharbiyya and Fayoum. ‪ 


Mar. 21 Police in al-Fashn, Bani Swayf, foiled an attempt to blow up a branch of the National Bank. They found 2 explosive devices inside bank.


Mar. 20 ‪Ikhwan throw rocks at British consul’s police escort & injure a woman in ‪#Bahaira ‪#Egypt ‪ …


Mar 19 3 students killed today in clashes between pro-Morsi & police in universities across Egypt. Protests at Cairo University met with tear gas.


Mar 19 5 Ansar Jerusalem fighters killed in clashes at Qanatir al-Khayriyya


Mar 18. Police trucks arrive after #Ikhwan students demonstrateing at al-Azhar block roads in the area.   blockمدرعات-الشرطة-تصل-محيط-جامعة-الأزهر/


Mar. 18 Ansar al-Shari3a says it murdered policemen because Morsi was deposed and for arrested Ikhwan women.


Mar 18. Campaign called Batel calls for mobilization on Mar. 19th to bring back Morsi


Mar 18 Police raid pro-Rabaa conference in Garden City in Cairo and hold the attendees.


Related: ‪#MOI Spoxman: ‘The ‪#MuslimBrotherhood is a terrorist organisation that should be arrested not have pressers! ‪#RabaaPresser ‪”



Mar. 18 #Ikhwan at #AlAzhar beat a campus security police unconscious and kidnap him off the campus.


Mar 16. Two men arrested planting bombs at high voltage towers in Giza supplying electricity to Haram, Faisal and other areas wo men arrested planting bombs at high voltage towers in Giza supplying electricity to Haram, Faisal and other areas ‪ …


Mar. 15 Gunmen kill six army police officers in an attack near Cairo


Mar. 14. Shaikh Moza of Qatar denied Saad Eddin Ibrahim’s claims about her support of 30 June and that Al Jazeera is being run by Ikhwan



Mar 14. Ikhwan clashed with people on al-Haram street and burned a store.


Mar. 14 Police used tear gas in Shoubra al-Khayma to disperse crowed which tried to block their truck


Mar. 14. Police dispered Ikhwan protesters today at Ain al-Shams; the protesters destroyed the cameras at the Matariyya Institute nearby.



Mar. 14 Pro-MB cleric Abdel Maksoud on Rabia TV says it’s peaceful to burn houses, cars of policemen and terrorize opponents of the Muslim Brotherhood http://youtube/s6yDuGzjMuQ

Mar. 13 Saudi Arabia arrests the Ikhwan’s (Muslim Brotherhood’s) al-Shaer


Mar. 13 Terrorist group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis disguised as Egyptian army and standing at a checkpoint in Rafah


Mar. 13 Gunmen attacked an army bus in al-Amiriyyeh in eastern Cairo, killing a soldier. These are believed to be Ikhwan cells, or at least, its supporters.   Ansar Beit al-Maqdis later claimed responsibility.



Mar 12. Saudi Arabia closes al-Jazeera’s office over Qatar’s support for Muslim Brotherhood.


Mar. 12 T #Ikhwan students demonstrating in front of #Cairo University #Egypt

Mar. 12. Dahi Khalfan says Gulf-based Ikhwan are funding the rebellion in Egypt.

Mar. 12 Ikhwan students gathered in front of Grand Imam’s house protesting arrest of female students.

طلاب الإخوان بالأزهر يحتشدون أمام بيت الطيب احتجاجًا علي محاكمة 5 طالبات …

Mar. 12 Interpol arrested Akram al-Shaer arrested in ‪#SaudiArabia and Mohammad Qabouti in ‪#Kuwait ‪#Ikhwan ‪#Egypt ‪ …


Mar 10 Unknown gunmen try to kill a policeman in Sharqiyya

Mar 9‪#Ikhwan burn OnTV truck in front of ‪#Cairo Univ ‪#Egypt ‪ طلاب-الإخوان-يشعلون-النيران-في-سيارة/‪#9iZKYQBIc9HFVqKJ.99


Mar 9 13 arrested at a bomb workshop in the Sinai in Arish city


Mar 8 A bomb exploded today near the refugee center in October City. #Egypt


Mar 8 #Ikhwan students march against the return of campus police and for the release of

other detained #Ikhwan students


Mar. 8 #Ikhwan students destroy electronic gates outside Mansoura University


Mar. 8 Ikhwan women in Alexandria chant “US save them from violence” (yesterday, they were chanting against the US in Cairo)


Mar. 7 Hayat journalist harassed and attacked on live TV as she was covering Ikhwan demos in Alf Maskan



Mar 7 7 Ikhwan dead in Alf Maskan as gunfire exchange with police begins.




Mar 7 Police car torched on 26th of July axis to October 6th in front of Hyper one market by an MB demo


Mar 7 Police secretary killed in al-Arish #Egyptدماء-شرطي-مصري-تسيل-في-شمال-سيناء-برصاص-مسلحين.html


Mar 7 5 police killed & 7 injured in #Matariyya #Egypt


Mar 7 #Ikhwan burned police truck in Faisal St. #Haram #Egypt


Mar 7 Clashes between Ikhwan/pro-Ikhwan and security in Fayyum, Minya and Alexandria (since Ikhwan had organized protest demos today)


Mar. 6 Armed gunmen fire on pro-Sisi marchers in Shaykh Zuwaid


Mar. 6 National Council for Human Rights completes a report on police brutality in the Rabaa and Nahda dispersals & releases a video showing armed gunmen.


Mar 6. Unidentified person(s) ignite a police car at Manial.


Mar 5 10 militants killed & 43 arrested in Sinai – according to Egyptian Army spokesman


Mar 5 Israel says it seized a Gaza-bound rocket shipment coming from Iran.


Mar 5 Bomb explodes near courthouse compound in Qena. No injuries. Another grenade found in the same area.



Mar. 3 Attacks on police across Egypt – in addition to those below in Giza and Beni Souef, there were attacks in Mansoura and the Aswan



Mar. 3 Police sergeant shot dead by ‘unknown’ gunmen in Beni Souef #Egypt


Attack on an ambulance in #Giza kills 1 policeman & wounds 1 #Egypt


Mar. 2 Clashes broke out outside Imbaba police station between police and the army as army was charged to secure the station.


Mar. 2 3 devices (bombs/proto-bombs) found on train to Banha and in Shubra station and were defused ‪ 


Mar. 2 8 Ikhwan were arrested for the burning of Samaloot police station. They had 2 bombs in their possession.

ضبط 8 إخوان متهمين بحرق مركز سمالوط بحوزتهم قنبلتان محليتا الصنع ‪ …


Mar. 2 Mohammed Zammar (Ansar ash-Sham) was released with other 5 Islamists in a swap. He was imprisoned for being MB member ‪

Mar. 1 10 extremists killed, 11 arrested in Northern Sinai (in Arish, Rafah and Shaykh Zuwaid)


Mar. 1 After clashes, police arrested 10 pro-Muslim Brotherhood in Ain Shams, Marg and Walli and a 13 year old was killed in clashes in the Matariyya area of Cairo. 2 police were injured. The rioters threw a bomb at security forces which was defused, and set a microbus on fire.


February 2014


Feb. 28 2 dead, 16 injured in clashes between supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood and police at demonstrations in Cairo, Alexandria – and also 5 injured in Minya.


Feb. 28

A fruit vendor was beaten up by Ikhwan with chains & knives bec he asked them to stay away from his shop



Feb. 24   Arrests made of 8 Muslim Brotherhood members for using social networking sites to promote violence.   Sites include Molotov Movement Against the Coup



Feb. 24 Bombs found inside court & registry at Kafr al-Dawwar


Feb. 22 Attackers on a motorbike shot an NSA officer in Zagazig (who died).


Feb. 21 A knife attack kills a Christian woman in upper Egypt.



Feb. 21 Car belonging to the Tahrir Channel was burned) on Haram [street] and Ikhwan supporters were dispersed by security forces in the Arish area of Haram afte.



Feb. 21 Beni Swaif, police aborted an attempt by 2 MB terrorist organization members to set fire to a police officer private car. He was injured & hospitalized. MB member Ahmed Ihab was arrested and the other member Belal Nehad Akasem, son of the leading MB member Nehad Alkasem in Beni Swaif. (source Min. of the Interror)


Feb. 21 Ultras Ahlawy clash with police and burn a police car after al-Ahli wins Africa Super Cup. 24 injured.



Feb. 21 Police vehicle set on fire early in the am. In Alexandria.


Feb. 20 Bomb squad investigating a device reported in Coptic graveyard in Damas, Meet Ghamr.


Feb. 20 Policemen will get 30 percent of their basic pay as risk compensation, effective 1 March


Feb. 20 3 drive-by shootings in #Sharqiyya w/i 24 hours #Egypt


Feb. 20 Some professors who either were Ikhwan or supporting them are fired by Cairo University and students involved in violent actions as part of protests were expelled.فصل-دراج-والأستاذ-المتورط-في-سحل-ضابط-بجامعة-القاهرة.html


Feb. 20 6 jihadists killed in the Sinai by armed forces.


Feb. 19 RT #Egypt al-Zomor and Abd al-Meguid, ‘former’ terrorists seek asylum in UK


Feb. 18 2 arrested for bomb manufacturing and other offenses in Mohandiseen and Giza.



Feb. 18 Cairo University expels 350 & Rabaa tshirts etc. forbidden #Egypt #Ikhwan


Feb. 18 Cairo U. refers Pakinam Sharqawi (for involvmt in the summer riots) and Seif Abd al-Fattah (for being employed by presidency w/o permission from the university) to investigation


Feb. 18 Unknown assailants fire on police checkpoint at Assiut wounding a policeman and a passerby



Feb 17 Army conscript shot by smugglers on the Egyptian-Israeli border south of Rafah.


Feb. 16 Egypt tourist bus blast killed 4 – 3 South Korean tourists, the Egyptian busdriver and injured nearly all 33 on board. Bus blew up after it entered Egypt from Israel. ‪ …


Feb. 15 3 children and 1 adult injured by an explosion in Madinat Nasr behind a police station


Feb. 14 Bomb thrown in front of Talibya police station – bomb squad tries to defuse



Feb. 13 Yesterday 2 security at #Saqqara died as 2 gunmen fired on them. Is US justifying this violence? #Egypt


Feb. 13. 3 arrested near the bomb-throwing at al-Warraq (yesterday aren’t Ikhwan but an independent cell.)



Feb. 12 A policeman standing guard outside Mar Guirguis Church is fatally shot



Feb. 12 Three people on a motorcycle throw a bomb in a street in al-Warraq which was defused by the Egyptian bomb squad. ‪


Feb 12 Detained Egyptian ‪@USEmbassyCairo employee’s name appeared in e-mail to top Muslim Brotherhood that leaked to media ‪ 



Feb. 12 108 Ikhwan who were arrested during violent clashes in Minya have been released on bail.


Feb 10 Men on motorbike kill a policeman in Isma’iliyya



Feb. 10 Ikhwan clash with teachers in Sharqiyya because teachers were gathering signatures to challenge the Ikhwan in the (teachers) syndicate


‪Feb. 10 Egyptian authorities accuse Muslim Brotherhood of forming an armed wing:


Feb. 9 More details on Muslim Brotherhood’s formation of a military wing



Feb. 8

Egypt’s army spokesman says airstrikes in Sinai Peninsula kill 16 armed fighters with ties to Muslim Brotherhood ‪ 



Feb. 8 New group calling itself Ajnad Misr on a Facebook page claims responsibility for Friday’s bombs in Cairo. Then claims responsibility for more attacks



Feb. 7 Riot police stabs officer to death yelling “Halal, Allahu Akbar”


Feb 7 Two bombs injure 4 at checkpoint on Fri. am


Feb 7 Police arrested 34 Ikhwan supporters in Alexandria who were in possession of petrol bombs, anti-mility leaflets, a live transmission device and Rabaa symbols.


Feb. 7 Ikhwan carrying rifles in Feisal, Giza



Feb 5, 2014. Muslim Brotherhood release home addresses of police officers.تقارير-وتحليلات/620083-35-ألف-ضابط-بالداخلية-يبحثون-عن-التأمين


Feb. 4, 2014. The Ikhwan burn the home and car of an al-Sisi supporter in Sharqiyya who had killed an Ikhwan member after a previous clashالأخبار/قلب-مصر/366160-عناصر-الإرهابية-يحرقون-منزل-وسيارة-مؤيد-للسيسي-بالشرقية


Feb. 4, 2014. A Muslim Brotherhood member (or supporter?) arrested in Beni Souaif with an RPG.



Feb. 4, 2014. Clashes in Fayyum between Ikhwan and police and 3 civilians are injured as a consequence.الحوداث/حوادث/366140-إصابة-3-في-اشتباكات-عنيفة-بين-الإخوان-والشرطة-بالفيوم


Feb. 4, 2014. Two soldiers injured in a bomb explosion in central ‪#Sinai. Bomb went off on the road as their truck drove by.


Feb. 4, 2014 Security thwarts a terrorist plot to try to blow up a beacon [lighthouse] in the Suez Canal



Feb. 4, 2014 2 explosive devices containing large amounts of TNT were found near a school in Badr City, New Cairo. Bomb squad defused them



Feb. 4, 2014 Jihad movement breaks away from the Coalition to Support Legitimacy (the group of pro-Morsi jihadist groups) says the coalition failed.


Feb. 4, 2014 Copts complain they are making jizya payments to Islamist extremists, still fear for their lives & police not doing anything.


Feb. 4, 2014 A new movement called HanRa3bku (We’ll Scare You) starts and attacks police in Assiut


Feb. 2, 2014 Bomb defused near the fence of military installation in Hurghada


Feb. 2, 2014 15 year old arrested at #Ikhwan march in possession of 9 hand grenades .


Feb. 2 Statement of suspects in Virgin Mary incident in court (one trained by Zawahiri [brother]) other against leaders who don’t support shari`ah


Feb. 1 4 Ikhwan members arrested in Alexandria – 2 trying to set police cars on fire and 2 others filming them.


Feb. 1 An Ikhwan dissident claims Ikhwan are trying to force the police into violence against them. Says Ikhwan planning commemoration of Battle of the Camel (which they were NOT victims in) on Feb. 11


Feb 1 One of the Islamists who threw kids off a building in the summer, is at his trial trying to lead prayer.



January 2014


January 31 Bomb (a soundbomb) went off at residence of Belgian Ambassador to Cairo


January 31, Two rockets exploded over Eilat as Israel’s Iron Dome defense system intercepted them. ABM claimed responsibility.


Jan 30 Ten militants were reported killed in the Sinai in Ahram Online (article has been removed)


Jan 30, Senior officer’s Lt. Col. Amr Hassan (a senior prosecutor) car blown up by Molotov cocktails and a bomb in Minya, in upper Egypt. AMB claims responsibility.


Jan 28: General Mohamed Said, an aid to the interior minister, is shot dead near his home in Giza’s Haram district by unknown assailants riding a motorcycle.


Jan 26 Gunmen killed 3 Egyptian soldiers on a bus in the Sinai; also reports on the 49 killed in 25th of January anniversary of the revolution protests and clashes.


Jan 25: Five soldiers – the crew of a military helicopter – are killed after their craft is hit by a surface-to-air missile in Sinai. The attack was claimed by Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis.

Jan 24: Four separate bomb attacks hit Greater Cairo on the eve of the 25 January 2011 revolution’s third anniversary, killing six people and injuring dozens. The bombs target Cairo’s central police headquarters, a police unit stationed near a metro station in Giza’s Dokki district, a police station in Giza’s Al-Talbiya district and another near a government building in Giza’s Haram district.

The Museum of Islamic Art, across the street from the central police headquarters, suffers extensive damage as a result of the explosion. The other two bombs were smaller in magnitude



Jan 25 Ikhwan attack police with weapons and Molotovs


Jan. 24 4 Explosions rocked Cairo killing 5, car bomb near police headquarters, at a metro station in Dokki, police station near Talbia and at a movie theater, killing one


Jan. 23 Five Egyptian policemen are killed and another two wounded in a drive-by shooting on a checkpoint in Beni Suef governorate, around 200 km south of Cairo. Later in February, the interior ministry directly accuses Muslim Brotherhood militants for the shooting, the first time it has levelled blame at the Islamic group for an attack since Morsi’s ouster.

Jan. 20 Two blasts heard near Eilat. At least one was a rocket fired from the Sinai.


Jan 19 Reports that Abu Mariam, a militant leader was killed on Sunday and that a house was demolished which had been found to have a large amount of ammunition and explosives.

Jan 18 Three killed in clashes with the army

Jan 16 Militant killed, 5 houses and 24 huts destroyed in al-Arish and Shaykh Zuwayd.

Jan 13 Two militants were killed by their own bomb and 5 militants reported killed.

Jan 4. One soldier killed, two injured in the Sinai in armored vehicle blast. Egypt Independent.

Jan 2 Information by Negah Ibrahim on the group he calls Ansar Jerusalem in the Sinai

Jan 1 A blogger, Spider said that the puppet Abla Fahita had given code about an upcoming attack linked to the Muslim Brotherhood. This bizarre claim was mocked widely

Some earlier noteworthy events in this conflict in 2013

May 16, 2013: Seven police and army personnel are kidnapped by unknown militants near north Sinai’s Al-Arish city. The conscripts are released the following week, after which the army announced that the release was a result of negotiation with the kidnappers and efforts of military intelligence as well as mediation by tribal sheikhs and Sinai locals.

While news of arrests and a military campaign against militants was reported after Morsi called for their arrest, no trial was reported thereafter.

July 5: Two days after the ouster of Morsi, five army and police officers are gunned down by Islamists in Al-Arish, a city which had become a hotbed for militant activity since 2011, with weekly attacks on police and army facilities and government buildings that, mostly, failed to leave casualties.

July 24: In an incident representing a shift in the methods of attack as well as location, a bomb is detonated at the Daqahliya governorate’s security directorate in the Delta city of Mansoura, killing a police conscript and injuring over 25 people. Previous attacks since February 2011 had mostly involved the use of firearms and to a lesser extent rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and grenades.

The interior ministry blamed Islamist extremists; the final results of police and prosecutor’s investigations were not announced.

August 14: After police forces disperse the main pro-Morsi encampments in Cairo and leave hundreds of dead protesters in their wake, armed Islamists launch RPGs at the town of Kerdasa’s police station in Giza, as a mob killed at least 11 officers, mutilated some and then reportedly securing control of the town.

Police returned to Kerdasa in September to arrest suspects involved in the attack and cleared it of armed militants.

August 19: The bloodiest militant attack so far happens when two vehicles transporting police conscripts near Sinai’s Rafah – on their way home for a holiday, according to police statements – were attacked by militants using RPGs. Twenty-five of the conscripts are killed in the attack. The prime suspect, whom security sources said was a jihadist militant called Adel-Habbara, is arrested later in August and is now being tried in criminal court.

September 5: A failed assassination attempt on Egypt’s Interior Minister Mohamed Ibrahim takes place in Cairo. A suicide bomber detonates a car bomb close to Ibrahim’s security convoy, as seen in the video of the group claiming the attack, Sinai-based jihadists Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis.

September 11: A car bomb explodes at the military intelligence building in the Sinai city of Rafah near the Gaza border, killing six soldiers and injuring 17 soldiers and civilians. Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis claims the attack.

October 7: Nine police and army officers and conscripts are killed in two attacks: a drive-by shooting on a military patrol near Ismailia, where an army officer and six conscripts are killed, and a bombing at the security directorate in Sinai’s Al-Tor city which leaves three police officers dead.

Later that evening, an RPG is fired at a satellite link in Cairo’s upscale southern district of Maadi, causing little damage. The attack is claimed by another militant group active in Sinai called Kataeb Al-Forqan.

November 17: National security officer Mohamed Mabrouk – involved in investigations of the Muslim Brotherhood and jihadist groups – is assassinated by gunmen near his home in eastern Cairo. Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis claims the killing a few days later.

November 20: A car bomb is detonated on the Arish-Rafah highway in North Sinai, killing 11 army conscripts and injuring 17 others. The attack is claimed by Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis, who later release a video recording of it.

December 24: A large explosion, apparently a car bomb and possibly more than one, detonates at the Daqahliya governorate’s security directorate in the Nile Delta city of Mansoura, killing 15 and injuring over 130 policemen and civilians. Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis claims the attack and several militant suspects are rounded up and questioned by police, who release videos of testimonies from primary suspects.


Summer 2013 – A compilation of threats of violence by key Muslim Brotherhood leaders, and allies.



January 2015 Sinai & Terrorism Log for Egypt

1 Feb

This is a log of many incidents in January 2015 which pertain to Egypt’s campaign in the Sinai and against terrorism and violent pro-Muslim Brotherhood actions on the mainland, or other security-related matters.

I haven’t posted for a long time!  The campaign in the Sinai has been effective and therefore the Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis have increased their propaganda, using the new name State of Sinai and linking themselves with ISIS.  They have money (what’s the source of that) and are using it to try to gain loyalties.  However, most of mainstream media and the few who focus on Sinai in DC based (not very pro-Egypt) institutes either report on the failure of the campaign or the repressiveness of Egypt in the Sinai.

Jan 31 Egyptian Interior Ministry employee killed: shot in the head in his home in al-Arish.



Jan 31 At least 6 conscripts were injured when Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis attacked 3 checkponts in Rafah.


Jan 31 The Monib police station was set afire by Muslim Brotherhood supporters (yes, David Kirkpatrick) in the Giza governate.


Jan 30 An Egyptian court banned the al-Qassam brigades, Hamas’ military wing and listed it as a terrorist organization. Hamas’ spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri said Hamas “rejects” the decision.


Jan 30 New Sinai clashes kill 2 children


Jan 30 Egypt’s president Sisi cut short his trip to Ethiopia after the deadly coordinated attacks in the Sinai & army launches a new offensive.


Jan 29 Death toll of at least 30 as Sinai militants used car bombs and mortars in the #Sinai



Jan 29 The Wahington Post editors once again critique Egypt’s governemnt for “repression.” No acknowledgement of the attack by 100 militants on Egypt’s forces in the Sinai, and no mention of the many violent incidents in Egypt on 1/25, but the killing of a protester Shaima al-Sabagh (now being investigated by the Egyptian govt.) is. They use the article also to criticize Obama, for supporting the Sisi government .


Jan 29 2 injured as 6 bombs went off in #Sharqiyya#Egypt #MB–injured.aspx



Jan 28 The U.S. State Dept. hosted a meeting with Muslim Brotherhood officials (not just MB-aligned as the article states) and the same group spoke at an event at DC’s National Press club hosted by CSID. Jan Psaki, (WH) claimed the meeting was sponsored by Georgetown University (?)



Jan 27 – The Muslim Brotherhood’s online Arabic site called on their members to launch jihad in an overt manner and with many historical references.


Jan 27 Pro-#Morsi Popular Resistance group in #Giza claims responsibility for torching #KFC in Haram via @Zeinobia. Video:


Jan 26 6 explosive devices found and dismantled near Church of Virgin Mary in Fayyoum.


Jan 26 Attempt to break into police station in Sharqiya foiled, aggressors arrested


Jan 26 Two bombs found in City Stars mall in Nasr City, at main entrance and entrance 7, according to @ONewsAgency #Egypt


Jan 26 AnsarBaytalMaqdis releases video of their murder of Ayman El-Dessouki earlier this month, linking them to cause of

Ansar Morsi by showing protesters first  #Sinai



Jan. 25 A car bomb exploded in front of a church in #Port Said.  #Egypt


Jan 25 Pro #MB small org just announced it burnt a post office servicing a crowded Cairo neighborhood. Nice work, thugs! #egypt


Jan 25 North #Sinai curfew extended by 3 months.  #Egypt


Jan 25   @Masrawy‘s reporter, Alaa Ahmed, got shot while covering Matareya clashes.  #Egypt #Jan25



Jan 25 4 Copts killed including a child in 1/25 proMB/anti’coup’ violence #Egypt


Jan 25, IkhwanWeb, the Muslim Brotherhood’s English language site, normally more understated than its Arabic site, issued a call to avenge every drop of blood in its AntiCoup efforts:


Jan 25 Bomb at Cairo-Alex railway track & also bomb near Shams club in Alf Maskan, two officers injured.



Jan. 25 Protesters set Haram district building on fire which authorities controlled. … #Egypt #مصر


Jan. 25 Detonating a bomb today in New Maadi. #Egypt …


Jan. 25 2 policemen were killed on the Ring Road in ‪#Cairo near Moneeb after gunmen in a car attacked. ‪#Egypt via ‪@TheCairoPost


Jan. 24   Shaima Sabbagh was part of a protest by the Socialist Popular Party which came into Tahrir to lay wreaths for the 1/15/11 fallen, and she was shot (disputes about whether by buckshot or birdshot) Eyewitnesses who reported were then questioned by authorities. 2 others wounded & 7 arrested.



Jan 24 Demolition of areas in the

Sinai buffer zone continues into phase 2.


Jan 21 Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis pledged to continue attacks on the army


Jan 20 4 militants killed near Shaykh Zuwayd and Arish. Also 2 conscripts and an officer were injured in the explosion of roadside bomb near Shaykh Zuwayd


Jan 19   Sinai terrorists claim they have attacked an oil pipeline to Jordan


Jan 13 The policeman who was kidnapped near #Rafah has been found dead. #Sinai #Egypt


Five more bodies found today in the Sinai (seven were found yesterday)


Jan 12


Report and photos of alleged IS militants (ABM affiliated with ISIS) giving money to someone whose home was destroyed in the Sinai. #IS in #Sinai #Egypt distributing financial help to inhabitant for their “destroyed home”. There is money round now.

#Police arrests assailants accused of drive-by shooting in #Giza – News – #Aswat_Masriya … #Egypt #مصر


Jan. 11 An explosion rocked #Maadi earlier today #Egypt


Jan 11 Egyptian officer kidnapped by militants in the Sinai.


Jan 11 Two more headless bodies found in Shaykh Zuwayd in the Sinai, presumably victims of the militants.


Jan 10 @TheBigPharaoh: Reports that a bomb is currently being defused near the Jewish synagogue in downtown Cairo.



Jan 10 Conscript wounded near #Arish – shooter unidentified #Egypt


Jan 9 Christian families in the #Sinai dwindle from 650 to 200 because of attacks by Islamic terrorists.*Mideast%20Brief&utm_campaign=2014_The%20Middle%20East%20Daily_1.9.15



Jan 9 Security called to check for explosives in prime minister’s car


Jan 6 Egypt’s army has killed 14 terrorists in raids in the Sinai between Saturday and Monday (yesterday)


Jan 6 Two bodies found; thought to be shot by militants, one south of Arish and one south of Rafah.



Jan 6 Two policeman guarding a church on the eve of Coptic Christmas were shot by masked gunmen


Jan. 5 Thirteen Copts were released in Libya and Libyan government said it will facilitate their return to Egypt. Claims they were not kidnapped by Islamic militants but by traffickers (smugglers). However, the other 7 Copts are not accounted for.


Jan 5 Two arrested for making explosives (and 3 others being investigated) in a plastics factory in #Sharqiyya


Jan 5 Egyptian police officer detained after killing two men on motorbikes at a checkpoint in Suez


Jan 5 Alleged State of ‪#Sinai twitter acct claims responsibility for IED that killed an Egyptian soldier yesterday.


Jan. 5 One policeman killed and 3 civilians injured after an attack by unknown assailants at a checkpoint in Mohandessin, Cairo,-civilian-killed-in-checkpoint-.aspx


Jan. 4 An American woman was found dead in Mahalla in the province of Gharbiyya

Jan. 4   ‪Egypt‘s Foreign Minister meets Bishop of Tanta about the kidnapped Christians in Libya; office in touch with local authorities & the Libyan government to secure their lives.


Jan 4 A soldier was killed disabling explosive devices in Shaykh Zuwayd and two officers and a soldier were injured.


Jan 3 Thirteen Coptic workers kidnapped in Libya, allegedly by Ansar al-Shariah (see later posts) That is in addition to 7 others kidnapped last week.


Jan 3 Palestinian boy shot by Egypt’s border guards trying to enter Sinai illegally and 3 Palestinians arrested also attempting to enter illegally.



Jan 2   ‪#Giza ‪#Egypt – 2 bombs defused outside cinema & shopping mall. Bombs had nails, sulfur, gnpwdr + a SIM card remotely. ‪ 


Jan 2 Second bomb found near Cairo Mall on al-Haram St.


Jan 2 A security checkpoint was attacked with an RPG west of Rafah in the Sinai.


Jan. 2 A bomb exploded as a police car passed by in Alexandria


Jan 2 Pro-Morsi demonstrations blocked the road near the Cairo Mall and demonstrators burned a police car.


Jan 1 President Sisi called for religious freedom.



“Who is (Really) Protecting Syria’s Archaeological and Historical Heritage?” Guest Article by Martin Makinson

22 Oct

Who is (Really) Protecting Syria’s Archaeological and Historical Heritage?

By Martin Makinson


Martin Makinson is a doctoral researcher who specializes in the archaeology of Syro-Mesopotamia. He has worked extensively on excavations in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraqi Kurdistan, Saudi Arabia and Turkey and spent the last ten years in many Arab countries, including Syria, Libya and Yemen. His research focuses on “Territories, Identities and Empires: the Impact of the Assyrians on the Material Culture in Northern Syria”.

Corbulo, an officer fighting for the Roman emperor Nero (reigned AD 54-68), once said that a war is won with a pickaxe and not just with a sword. He was referring to how soldiers dug under fortifications and opened tunnels to besiege enemy cities and destroy walls. Free Syrian Army and Islamic Front rebels have for months made tunnels under the old city of Aleppo to reach the Carlton hotel facing the citadel, i.e. the main headquarters for Assad’s troops and his so-called National Defense Guard. A little more than a fortnight ago, they managed to implode this late Ottoman building from below, putting to practice this Latin maxim and causing massive damage to regime ranks. The “war of tunnels” (in Idlib, at Wadi Dayf airbase, in Aleppo) appears to be a new – but long and patient – way of scratching into a regime war machine still prevailing on the ground and in the air.

Yet Corbulo’s words can also apply to what is actually occurring as we speak: an attempt by Bashar al-Assad, courtesy of international organizations such as UNESCO and NGOs like Heritage for Peace, to pose as the defenders of archaeology, of Syria’s huge historical and architectural heritage, and, why not, of civilisation itself. Bashar’s propaganda stints often portray destructions merely as the result of fundamentalist Islamic armed hordes wantonly reducing historical monuments and sites to rubble, plundering any precious movable relics or destroying them in order to satisfy their “Wahhabi” agenda. If we are to believe the conference organizers, who screened out any undesirable coverage of an event which made security and staff at Unesco’s Paris premises quite edgy, “plans and grand designs” are under way to restore the unique remains of all periods of Syria’s history, from Neolithic to Ottoman. What the Damascus General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) announces it will restore are the buildings obliterated or looted to a large extent by the very regime they are working for and representing abroad.

After three years of devastation, in the wake of the bombing of entire ancient cities from the air or from SCUD launchers, the Assad regime sent to Paris a delegation of archaeologists and museum curators to attend a three day conference, from May 26th to 29th 2014. At UNESCO premises at Place de Fontenoy near the Eiffel tower, Assad’s civil servants discussed a budget for some of the country’s – damaged, to say the least – architectural jewels, most leveled in the last two years by MIG fighter jets and barrel bombs filled with TNT. Two and a half million dollars (minimal sums, considering the scale of the destruction) have been set aside for a three-year restoration project of medieval citadels destroyed by the conflict. These so-to-speak drops of water provided by Denmark and Belgium, are to be handed over to “experts” and to a General Directorate staff acting as firemen for a power structure which has – literally – committed arson from the very day its phosphorous bombs reduced to ashes the Middle East’s largest Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman souk in Aleppo in the winter of 2012. Many archaeologists such as Paolo Matthiae, of La Sapienza University in Rome and the director of excavations at the third millennium BCE site of Ebla since 1965, are attending and lecturing. It was this very Matthiae who had rewarded Asma al-Assad with an honoris causa doctorate from his university in October 2004, during a much media-covered visit to this 55 hectare urban Bronze age centre. Other scholars and prominent archaeologists have chosen not to respond to UNESCO’s calls for a closed-doors symposium whose political agenda appears clearly under the veneer of scholarly workshops and assessments.

Four workshops were planned in a program which has been (mysteriously) removed from the conference’s website, three dealing with different aspects of heritage in Syria: movable objects (i.e. saving sites and museums from looting and plundering), built heritage (monuments and archaeological mounds), intangible heritage (preserving arts, crafts and traditions for which Syria is famous for, for instance Hama’s cotton prints, music and walnut and mother-of-pearl inlaid furniture, or the music and muwashahat and qâsida poetry that has made Aleppo famous). One of the “bright ideas” put forward by UNESCO was to print hundreds of thousands of flyers to be given to refugees in camps in Lebanon and Syria, to inform them of the value of heritage. Though a substantial number of antiquities do leave the country via Syria and Lebanon, far from being in the hands of displaced refugees, they are the loot of Lebanese, European and Turkish smugglers: a few months ago, a Byzantine mosaic kept in Raqqa (maybe in fact from Dibsi Faraj, an artwork from churches dug in the 1970s during rescue operations on the Euphrates) was destroyed by ISIL extremists because it had aroused the interest of a Turkish antiquities dealer willing to illegally purchase it.

Asma al-Assad in 2006, receiving an honoris causa doctorate from the dean of humanities of La Sapienza University in Rome

Asma al-Assad touring Ebla with Italian archaeologist Paolo Matthiae

But will conference papers discuss the systematic looting at Syria’s largest Hellenistic and Roman site at Apamea, some 50 km north of Hama above the marshy Ghâb valley? Will Dr Mamoun Abd al-Karim, the current director of antiquities, a man hailing from Malkiyeh (Derrik) east of Qamishli (close to Iraq and Turkey’s borders) discuss the hundreds of pits dug on both sides of the 1.8 km avenue of spiralled columns and shops (the longest in the Orient), these erected in the aftermath of the 115 AD earthquake, shortly after emperor Trajan’s victories in Mesopotamia against the Parthians? Small-scale illicit digging was a problem at Apamea well before the 2011 uprising. Local youth on motorcycles would drive around the site and around Seleucos I’s massive Hellenistic walls to show visitors the odd Roman coin, a pottery oil lamp or Roman Samian ware. Osman ‘Aidi, a well-known developper of the merchant-military class of the 1980s (who constructed the Sham hotel in Hama over the Keilani quarter’s slaughtered inhabitants) had disfigured many of the site’s columns by covering them with ghastly, crude, mushroom-shaped capitals of concrete. Still, what has occurred since 2012 is something quite different, a scandal on an industrial scale met only by the silence of many scholars and agencies alike. Since March 2012, officers of the Syrian army have forced local peasants to dig trenches all over the site, creating a lunar landscape similar to other plundered classical and Hellenistic cities of the Orient in conflict zones (Aï Khanoum in Bactriana/Afghanistan and Hatra in Iraq are a case in point). During a visit made by the author in August 1995, Belgian archaeologist Jean-Claude Balty had emphasized how it was difficult to preserve a marble marvel: the opus sectile designs of the 6th century AD Eastern Byzantine cathedral, near the second century AD decumanus colonnade. He was then horrified at how entire floors forming intricate geometric patters were being vandalized after exposure, partly a result of the General Directorate’s lack of organization and care in managing and protecting them from the elements. Alas, one doubts whether Dr Mamoun Abd al-Karim, a specialist of classical periods and of Roman centuriations (agricultural land divisions for taxation purposes) in the area around Homs will raise the issue of Apamea and discuss at UNESCO regime responsibilities in vandalism and looting.

To the right, Opus sectile floor in the Eastern Cathedral of Apamea. To the left, a view of the eastern apse of the same monument (from

Just a few hundred meters to the West, the regime had, a few months earlier, targeted the tell (mound) of Qala‘at al-Mudiq, whose latest levels were those of the Crusader border fortress of Fémie. This was a place where the Duke of Antioch Bohemund had confronted Saladin’s troops in the 1180s – an episode recalled by Saladin’s secretary, the Arab knight Usama Ibn Munqidh of Sheizar castle on the Orontes. An arched bridge, a smaller scale version of the one leading into the Aleppo citadel, was partly damaged by shells, just as two 12th century AD bastions to the west. It is also unlikely that many questions on the artillery bombing of March 2012 will be asked during the UNESCO closed door sessions.

To be presented during these three days were restoration plans of two quasi-intact citadels in the Jebel al-Ansariyeh mountains: Qala‘at al-Husn and further north, Saladin’s castle (in fact Qala‘at Sahyun, derived from the French Saône family responsible for its upkeep before Sultan Salah ad-Dine seized it in 1188). In mid-June 2012, the Sunni enclave of al-Haffeh, above Lattakia, suffered from massive regime bombardment when the Free Syrian Army held it for a few days. Saladin’s castle, 6 km uphill, was also hit. Described by Lawrence of Arabia as one of the most beautiful fortresses of the Orient, illustrated in his doctoral dissertation, it is in fact a city bordered to the north by a 30-metre deep moat dug into the limestone around a drawbridge pinnacle, and to the south by a lower town with unexcavated houses lost in a maze of thick bush and thorns. In between, what was standing was a citadel whose foundations go back to Byzantine Emperor John Tzimikès, who when a general reconquered the coastal Levant in AD 982, seizing it from the Shia Hamdanid dynasty ruling in Aleppo. There is precious little information on the current state of a Crusader keep three storeys high where the Southern French Puylaurens noble family resided in the mid-12th century, nor is anything known of the fate of the hammam (the baths) built by Mamluk sultan Baibars and excavated by a French-Syrian expedition funded by the Agha Khan.

Some of the intact Crusader towers at Saladin’s castle

(author’s photograph, 2010)

As for Qala‘at al-Husn, the Krak des Chevaliers guarded by the Hospitalliers religious order before it surrendered to the same sultan Rukn ad-Dîn Baibars in 1271, it has suffered even more extensive destruction. “Baibar’s tower”, a 13th century AD underground hammam inside the keep, an assembly hall for knights with a famous warning inscription in Latin against “pride”, and the chapel – some of the earliest examples of Gothic architecture in the Levant – were targeted on July 13th, 2013, by MIG fighter jets. These disloged with heavy ordnance FSA insurgents who were using this strategic vantage point overlooking the Homs corridor, the Buqeia of the Crusades.


Regime aerial bombing of the Baibars tower of the Krak des Chevaliers


Pictures showing regime artillery bombing of the entrance to the Apamea Qala‘at al-Mudiq medieval citadel in March 2012, and its aftermath (published online by APSA)


A view of Sergilla in the Jebel Zawiya in 2010 (photograph by the author). Since 2012, hundreds of internally displaced families from the region have taken shelter in this almost entirely preserved Byzantine village.

It is unclear whether Unesco, as well as discussing heritage awareness with refugees, plans to resettle the locals who have sheltered in the Late Roman and Byzantine 4th-5th century AD tombs, cisterns and houses of Sergilla, Baoude, Al-Bara, Ruwaiha and other Jebel Zawiyeh “Dead Cities”. Will the issue of why they have taken refuge there in the first place – because of Assad’s incessant bombing of civilians, bakeries, infrastructure, clinics in Maaret an-Nu‘man, Saraqeb, in the Ghâb Orontes valley and al-Bara – be addressed by this UN institution? The safeguarding of heritage is nothing more than one aspect of a huge list of grievances, at the top of which is the very survival and safety of a population driven home by a state terror campaign from the air.

What do the Roman temple, church and monastery of Deir Cheroubim at 1800 metres above sea level look like now, since the army has used it as a strategic stronghold for tanks and artillery? In early 2013, this mountaintop, a holy Christian site above Saidnaya, some 48 km north of Damascus in the Anti-Lebanon mountains, was used as a military base for Assad’s loyalist forces. Even worse, it became a target of fighting between Islamic Front fighters and the regime’s army during the Qalamoun battle in November 2013, when anti-Assad forces were disloged by Hezbollah militiamen and army troops from the nearby towns of Rankous, Deir ‘Atiyeh and Yabroud. The entire two-million-dollar UNESCO budget would not even be enough to restore this site 150 metres in diametre, which, though not the focus of Western tourism before 2011, was a popular destination for Syrians on a summer day out from Damascus. Deir Cheroubim is one of these Roman mountain cult sites dotting all slopes of the Anti-Lebanon mountains around sacred Mount Hermon (the Senir of the Bible and Phoenicians). Another example similar to Cheroubim is for instance Burqush, a place that became inaccessible to tourists after the 2006 war in Lebanon and was threatened even before the conflict. A huge platform with a temple and Byzantine basilica, the site was already under threat from army camps nearby in this most sensitive of areas near the Lebanese and Israeli-occupied Golan Heights borders. Both sites, on mountaintops with breathtaking views over the Damascus region, are part of a unique territory, elements of a sacred mountain dedicated in Aramaean times to the Storm God Hadad and in the Roman period to Zeus and Helios the sun deity (in Hebbariyeh and Deir ‘Ashayer in Lebanon, similar Roman cult-places survive as well-preserved monuments).

And then there are the mounds, the tells. Thousands of them from the Jazira near Qamishli to the Hawran, from Abou Kemal by Iraq to Syria’s earliest village at Tell Qaramel north of Aleppo. Those of many cities layered like Black Forest cakes. Those where battles of momentous importance for the history of the Near East were fought. Those whose layers go back to the pre-pottery Neolithic period (PPNA), c. 9000 BCE. Those where wars were won and then celebrated on reliefs at Abou Simbel and in the Theban Ramesseum in Egypt, or on clay tablets and treaties in cuneiform Akkadian from Hattuša, the Hittite imperial capital in modern Turkey. The battle for Qussayr must have greatly affected Tell Nabi Mend, where since 2012 fighting had been heavy. This artificial small mountain of mud brick and stone overlooking the Orontes, a few miles north of the Lebanese border, is of course where the clash of two empires took place, the disputed territory of one of antiquity’s most famous battles. In fact Qadesh-on-the-Orontes was where Ramesses II claimed to have saved the day and charged Muwatalli’s army on a chariot or where he ran for his life, according to which propaganda – Hittite or Egyptian – one is to believe. Qadesh was where, c. 1286 BCE, the Egyptian army was lured into a trap by spies acting as captured prisoners. These pretended to confess under duress information of paramount strategic importance. The irony is that this Ramesside propaganda echoes that of Assad’s claims to victory at nearby Qussayr, a town reduced to rubble in May 2013. Qussayr is a battle which was won thanks to Hezbollah mercenaries, with massive losses among Syrian army troops. It seems that Nabi Mend, a site excavated in the 1980s by a British team of archaeologists and now an army encampment, was severely damaged by tanks and trenches.

One could also mention Tell Sheikh Hamed at the other end of Syria, the Middle (1300-1100 BCE) and Late (900-610 BCE) Assyrian city of Dur-Katlimmu, an upper mound and a giant lower city of immense size; in fact this was the largest 7th and 6th century BCE metropolis in Syria. It was resettled in one go by the Assyrian governor Nergal-Eresh, and rebuilt over an artifical canal dug by deportees (the Nahr Dawrin, a 200 km long waterwork feeding from the Habur upstream near Hassake). Since 1979 a “Red Palace” of Nabuchadnezzar’s Babylonian empire, a 500-tablet cuneiform archive of the same age discovered in 1998, a Late Bronze Age palace with similar tablets belonging to Assur’s king Tukulti-Ninurta I (1241-1207 BCE), are but a fraction of the immensely important discoveries made there by Berlin’s Free University Professor Harmut Kuhne and Assyriologists Wolfgang Röllig, Karen Radner and Eva Cançik-Kirschbaum. The site, 40 km west of the Wadi ‘Ajij, a gateway into Iraq and a no-man’s land, is a strategic crossroad. It therefore became a battle ground between FSA brigades and the Syrian army in mid-2012. Now the region is inaccessible and under the control of the most extreme, fanatic and violent of fundamentalist militias, ISIL – known to Syrians as Da‘esh. Their black flags of darkness now loom like stagnant clouds over the Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa and Hassake governorates, and little information on heritage or anything else trickles to the outside.

The means that the regime has used to destroy entire settlements, its disregard both for human life and for the houses and churches and residences and palaces built by tens of generations –those mentioned above in this article are but a minute fraction – should make organizations think twice before inviting Syria’s civil servants and officials to international conferences on heritage and restoration. Museum officials from the Damascus General Directorate, whose denunciations have been selective to say the least and who have indirectly or even straightforwardly lent credit to Assad’s narrative, will never voice any opposition to his relentless bombing campaigns. And they will even less be capable of doing something about looting and destructions affecting sites in areas which have expelled the Syrian dictator’s henchmen.

Those who have extensively documented the damage done to remains, those who have exposed crimes against heritage and barbaric, criminal behaviour towards a resource to be shared by all Syrians and which forms an essential ingredient for future peace and national cohesion, are all from civil society. At great risk for their own lives, they have forwarded countless snippets of information on what has actually occurred to the locations archaeologists had surveyed and cleared for decades. A network of dedicated students, of conscientious volunteers in Aleppo, in the Jazira, in the Hawran, in the Wadi Nessara, in the Orontes and Euphrates valleys and elsewhere, has been documenting the last three years of damage. It is archaeology students at Aleppo University who saved an Ayyubid 12th century wooden minbar (a prayer platform) from being obliterated to splinters by shells from the frontline. They are the ones who collected the hewn basalt and limestone stones of the 11th century Aleppo mosque minaret, which collapsed from tank shell bombing when this religious space was on the frontline. Their information and their actions are the infinitely precious pieces of a huge jigsaw puzzle to be assembled when ISIL and the regime, who feed on each other’s actions, hopefully recede into oblivion. These students and youth have witnessed the extent of the tragedy affecting Doura Europos over the Euphrates, a city in the steppe where Palmyrenes, Parthians, Romans, Jews, Mesopotamians and Greeks mingled and where at least six languages were spoken before it fell in AD 256 to the Sassanian Persians. Now Doura, the city of the painted synagogue showing Moses crossing the Red Sea, of the palaces of the strategos and Dux Ripae Greek and Roman generals, of the temples of so many local and Greek gods (Zeus Megistos, Zeus hypsistos, the Gaddê, Nabû god of wisdom and writing…) lies in probably what is now the world’s most unsafe area.

The fortification walls of Doura Europos in the spring, looking northeast toward the Euphrates river valley (author’s photograph, 2009)

These brave – one could say foolhardy – Syrians, armed and funded with nothing but good will and passion, were instrumental in the creation of independent NGOs working on a shoestring such as APSA (Association for the Saveguarding of Syrian Heritage) and Ila Souria, a think-tank of architects, historians, lawyers and intellectuals regularly discussing reconstruction. Nevertheless, it is under the pressure of regime officials and their representative at Unesco, Lamia Shakkur, that they were banned from publically exposing the results of their work at UNESCO. Because of what they see as discrimination motivated by a regime whose authority they do not acknowledge, APSA and Ila Souria decided to boycott the event.

The Second century AD Roman temple, reconstructed as a church, within the Deir Cheroubim monastery compound near Saidnaya (author’s photograph).

This is not to say that the regime is the only party responsible for the damage to Syria’s monuments, cities and mounds. Assad’s forces barbarity is paralleled by the local equivalent of the Taliban. Countless examples of ISIL/Da‘esh’s gratuitous and hysterical violence against any remain from pre-Islamic times abound. One of the latest took place at Tell ‘Ajaja, the ancient city of Šadikanni and one of the Middle East’s earliest excavations, a place where in 1849 Sir Henry Austin Layard found a lamassu, a human-headed bull that guarded Assyrian palaces. Illicit looting has taken place since the Syrian conflict’s onset at this 15 hectare site some 25 km upstream from Tell Sheikh Hamed. Assyrian statues and relics found there were seized by Da‘esh Jihadis and reduced to dust, a crime recalling the terrible obliteration of the Bamiyan Buddhas in March 2001. The fate of the Deir ez-Zor Museum, which houses a huge fraction of the Mari archive, all the third and fourth millennium BCE finds from the Jazira and those of Roman and Parthian Dura Europos, is unknown. Yet the worse is to be expected in a city to a great extent controlled by this Jihadi movement and whose late Ottoman souks were the scene of heavy fighting in 2013. In the terrorized city of Raqqa, the city ISIL ruthlessly rules since 2013, a unique sculpture preserved in a public garden was smashed to pieces by these fundamentalist extremists. It was a lion inscribed in three languages (hieroglyphic Luwian, Assyrian cuneiform and in the Aramaic akphabet). It had been taken there decades ago from Arslan Tash, an acient city lying 90 kms north on the Turkish border, where a French team had excavated in the 1930s, discovering an Assyrian “palace” (in fact probably a huge temple). This lion carved by the turtânu (general in command) Shamshi-Ilu, ruling the West as a vice-roy for the Assyrian king, was incidentally a proof of the ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity of northern Syria in the 9th and 8th century BCE.

The destruction of century-old Sufi shrines, and of the graves of Shia mujtahids (Islamic law scholars) and saints are also part of Daesh-ISIL’s agenda, and indirectly serve that of the Assad regime. The extremist movement led by al-Baghdadi has thus done what the Syrian dictator had dreamt of for months since 2011: plunging the country into a sectarian abyss, which would drive thousands of Iraqi and Lebanese Shias to flock to Assad under the guise of protecting “Sayyida Zaynab”’s shrine. Such crimes against both history and the country’s social and religious fabric should be denounced as much as those of the regime, which feeds and thrives on the medieval behaviour of jihadi militias.

The NGOs APSA and Ila Souria have been very clear in their condemnation of all crimes against heritage and Syria’s historical and social fabric. They have been also frank about their refusal be part of a conference where, as they have pointed out on their Facebook page, they would “merely … be the audience, as result of pressure exerted by representatives of the Damascus regime, something which was communicated to us by the organizers themselves [UNESCO]”. In fact, at the three-day symposium, “none of the experts or representatives of associations working in the regions of Syria not under regime control are to express themselves in this conference, while representatives of the Ministry of Culture and of the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums in Damascus will be present and giving lectures at all sessions”. Their refusal to attend was also a way of protesting against focus on experts who “have carried out no concrete action inside Syria” and against “criteria used for choosing participants, which are unclear, and have never been made explicit and transparent”. Strasbourg university Assistant Professor Philippe Quenet, who has lived and worked extensively in the field in Syria and Mesopotamia for many years and who is one of the founders of both Patrimoine Syrien en Danger and APSA, added that “to refuse to go to a conference where it would be unable to speak out to the audience was a question of dignity”, but this did not imply “absence of cooperation with parties really interested in working on the ground and promoting concrete actions to save Syria’s heritage.” In fact, strategies for cooperation on this matter were to be presented by these civil society NGOs at the next ICAANE conference on Near Eastern archaeology, in a workshop on Syria is on June 10th.

Asma al-Assad visiting a trench on the 2450 BCE acropolis of Tell Mardikh/Ebla, near Palace G, close to were 17,000 cuneiform tablets were found in 1974


“A Political Economy Lens on the Syrian Revolution’s Shifting Landscape” By Dr. Sherifa Zuhur

6 Oct

“A Political Economy Lens on the Syrian Revolution’s Shifting Landscape.”


Dr. Sherifa Zuhur, IMEISS


(Oral version. Not for citation or circulation without notification to the author


Presented to the Workshop “Businessmen in Arms: How the Military and Other Armed Groups Profit in the MENA.” Bonn International Center for Conversion, Bonn Germany, October 1, 2014.


Syrians of all sects and income levels are waging a revolution after decades of praetorian/security services, authoritarian rule.  Secondarily, Syria now features a regional and international struggle between Assad’s government and his allies – primarily Russia, Iran, which considers Syria, it’s 35th province, and the revolutionaries and their allies (which have included the U.S., U.K., U.A.E., Egypt, Italy, Turkey, France, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and others). On a third level, this conflict represents a new jihadist front as a spillover from Iraq and also into Lebanon. This is the target of the recently announced international coalition.


My paper partially concerned the military balance of the conflict and what it portends.   While reliant on estimates, troop or personnel numbers, weaponry and capabilities may provide a window onto the longevity of a conflict. The American revolutionary war took 8 years (1775 -1783), Fidel Castro ousted Batista of Cuba after seven years. The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt were swiftly enacted –– in 27 days in Tunisia and 17 days in Egypt — because their militaries assented to regime change and both were incomplete revolutions. In Libya, where international intervention took place, the ‘war stage’ was about eight months, but then entered a different stage of militia warfare with the re-establishment of some local services. The uncertain tenure of a revolutionary phase may be punctuated or followed by incidents which appear to be game-changers (the Bay of Pigs for Cuba, for example) but that are interpreted quite differently in hindsight.

The staying power of warring groups is also beginning to rely on “‘markets of violence’ as defined by Georg Elwert: “areas dominated by civil wars, warlords or robbery in which a self-perpetuating system (italics are mine) emerges and links nonviolent commodity markets with the violent acquisition of goods.” (proper endnotes appear in the full written version of this paper).

However the problems of applying this latter formula to the Syrian revolution are that a) the situation does not equate to civil war (the claim has been made to argue for the rights of combatants under the Geneva convention, etc.) b) Many of the economic activities fitting into the markets of violence existed before this conflict. A * is used to indicate a pre-existing market of this nature in the list below.

Syria possessed a shadow, or black market economy for years, possibly 25% of its income & this has expanded during the revolution, and c) The most important economic aspect of the conflict is probably the transfer of funds by external sponsors which more directly influence the military balance d) because the profits obtained through the markets of violence are uncertain figures which accrue to loyalists, rebels, and also to criminals or other non-combatants, it is difficult to calculate their effects.


Rebels, loyalists and criminals now raise cash from


  1. Most have been of Syrian citizens held for smaller ransom, from $2000 to $20000; in some cases, Qatar’s government has paid hefty ransoms (for the nuns of Maaloula and Fijian UN peacemakers)  foreign journalists were held for huge ransoms or beheaded as we saw by ISIS which serve as a recruitment device for the group & a means of declaring war on the US & the UK..
  2. Drug smuggling.* – this involves hashish, much of it smuggled from Lebanon where the govt. has been unable to raid producers as in years past; heroin, cocaine and Captagon which is an amphetamine using fenytillin (made in Syria but also in S.eastern Europe and Turkey & used by fighters on both sides & smuggled out for profit – often to the Gulf


  1. Arms smuggling* to the fighters. These rings have been operated by tribes in border areas and long predate the conflict. There are naturally new actors and methods of arms acquisition, again coming in over the borders.


  1. Human trafficking. Version I – smuggling out of refugees. These pay a fee to get to the border. In other instances, they pay to be smuggled from second points to southern or northern Europe.


  1. Antiquities smuggling* In some cases, from UNESCO sites designated as being in danger. These transfer to Lebanon and elsewhere, but the routes and agents began their careers, in some cases, during the civil war in Lebanon.


  1. Human trafficking. Version II – Prostitution and the sale of women as temporary wives. The trade in women and girls burgeoned in some areas like Damascus, with the influx of Iraqi refugees, and that was fairly well-documented, while the reports include activities of marriage brokers and impact Syrians inside and outside of Syria.


  1. Oil, diesel , and gas.  Syria’s official oil exports have ceased with a loss of 20 billion dollars. ISIS, Nusra and other groups are benefitting, but so are the tribes who hold rights to the oil wells in some areas. They sell to the armed groups and the armed groups sell some oil to the Assad govt. The Kurdish YPG controlled fields had won them from Nusra, setting up a new refining company the Distributing al-Jazeera’s Fuel (KSC).


ISIS is smuggling out diesel fuel & the revenues benefit Turkish border areas, not only ISIS.   Nusra has been selling gas as well.


  1. h)   Criminal networks’ use of children in the sales of contraband or smuggled   goods, as for instance children working to sell smuggled cigarettes in Turkey.



Much of my paper dealt with the factionalizing effect of payments made by governments and individuals to the rebels.  This effort to map the changes, especially on the rebel side was complicated by the efforts made by researchers to either inflate the efficacy of the leadership of the Free Syrian Army, the overstatements regarding the salafi-jihadist groups in the country, or efforts by other research institutes to promote the likelihood of a stalemate or worthiness of Assad’s tenure, and not least, by the war of words in social media over the issue.


This data led to the following conclusions:


  1. Markets of violence behave differently in revolutionary situations than in long-lasting endemic smaller scale conflicts


  1. The Syria revolution (like some other revolutions) has united and divided both its backers and opponents.


  1. It cannot be resolved through economic means. Violence is being waged to create or prevent a systemic change. The aim for political transformation is the dog wagging the tail of economic activities to sustain the conflict and not the reverse.


I made an effort in the paper to examine various assertions and claims that the conflict has been provoked through economic transformation. Certain commentators hold that transitions from state socialism to neoliberalism were the reason for Arab Spring revolutions. However, state socialism was never complete and nor tenable in Syria; there was no society-wide transition to a flourishing neoliberalism despite the infitah there. Rather, the efforts to separate economic from political liberalization accompanied a process where benefits accrued mostly to a small circle of businessmen and leading families who supported Bashar al-Assad’s “New Syria.”


Instead, the regime’s brutal response to nonviolent demonstrations in 2011 was the main trigger to revolution. Bouthaina Shaaban (a key advisor both to Hafez al-Assad and then, Bashar al-Assad ) suggested that financial aid be given to the rural areas, which had experienced great privations, but not revolted under the Assads for years. The protesters, who were not professional activists, were so angered by the governments’ actions and so exhausted by its political suppression, that they mocked her proposition, calling for an end to political ‘slavery.’


  1. Syria’s military was quite large for a country of its size, deliberately so with an aim to counter Israel, but it lacked a large-scale Military Inc. or milbus (the term used by Ayesha Siddiqa for Pakistan) sector as was described by other presenters in this workshop for Egypt or Jordan. Syria, however has possessed a medium-scale set of military/industrial/research endeavors and so, an exception to the first statement was Syria’s SCUD missiles production which was jointly accomplished with Iran and North Korea. Otherwise, Syria was reliant on weapons procurement from other countries and aid and training from the USSR, causing its military to adopt a centralized, authoritarian, low-risk style of warfare as Tony Cordesman has pointed out — ill-suited to confronting guerilla tactics. Syria has a significant chemical and biological weapons program, also developed with Israel in mind. At the outset of the revolution, Assad had approximately 295,000 troops plus 314,000 reserves and its military intelligence, known as the mukhabarrat and the forces of the General. Security Directorate, and Political Security Directorate which captures, interrogates and tortures rebels (paramilitaries also now operate checkpoints).


The revolution fractured Assad’s conventional forces. Defections began in July of 2011, resulting in he new Free Syrian Army umbrella (of numerous battalions and groups) which had then merged with the Free Officers Movement.  Defections continued until 100,000 had left, and travel restrictions on males were imposed. Family members left behind were often arrested, tortured or faced property destruction, meaning that the loyalty of many who remained was also at question. Distrust of Sunni rank and file and reserves reduced the deployable size of Assad’s army troops. He has relied on his air force (and these are mostly Sunni, so the sectarian argument is not an overarching explanation, the Republican Guard, 4th division and Special Forces, but also on paramilitaries.


Syria’s shabiha, militias which operate like gangs or mafias, predate this conflict, and obtain funds from businessmen and the government as well as through smuggling – in the past, they dealt in cigarettes and other controlled products from food to batteries, or smuggled hashish, and antiquities. They have been accused of some of the worst atrocities in the fighting, as for example in the Houla massacres (25 May 2012) and reportedly are paid about $500 a month. National Defense Forces were also established; these are civilian militias who obtain their salaries from the Assad government. Altogether these Syrian militias were estimated at 60,000.  The foreign fighters bolstering the loyalists consist of Hizbullah of Lebanon, (5,000 est.) at least 14 Iraqi Shi`a groups, and Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps advisors and a Syrian militia trained and operated by IRGC and Hizbullah operatives. These are waging jihad at least as fervently as the Sunni salafi-jihadists on the other side, with sectarian as well as political aims. This must be viewed alongside the immense amounts of credit have been extended by Iran to Syria and cash and weapons were provided both by Iran and Russia,


  1. The rebels are nonviolent revolutionary activists and about 1,500 armed groups. Dividing them into “secular” and salafi-jihadist is imprecise. Syria, like so many countries in the region underwent an Islamic revival in the ‘90s. Analysts have also suggested a differentiation between salafi-jihadists with nationalist goals and those with global aims.


The rebel forces have taken much of the country & that is due to the fact that


  • the nonviolent revolutionaries are still viewed as “worthy resistance” – in Charles Tilly’s language . Their goal is a free, democratic, nonsectarian Syria with a civilian government and rule of law. They have received training and funding from outside of Syria for example, in the use of video-making and branding, democracy education, and governance.
  • political and financial support by foreign governments of the formal political opposition structure – the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.
  • Religious (and thus ideological) and financial support by governmental and private donors to the salafist fighting groups and the Free Syrian Army.


The middle section of my paper concerns the largest fighting groups – the umbrella group of Free Syrian Army which includes non-salafi and more or less extreme salafi groups; the Jabhat Nusra and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Sham; Older and newer Islamist coalitions like the Harakat Ahrar al-Sham – 13 of its leaders were recently assassinated – and newer ones like the Islamic Front and the Hazzm movement, and some of the Kurdish fighting movements and brief mention of the activities of the nonviolent movement’s organizations.


Funding is important to these groups in two ways 1) fighters require provisioning and stipends 2) those with more heavy weaponry could respond more effectively


The expansion of global jihad meant the salafi-jihadists very successfully used social media to fundraise & in turn, demonstrated the use of those funds to donors. And this could all be done on an individual basis, and is thus extremely difficult to track or interrupt.


  1. Since the summer of 2012, the FSA or ‘moderate’ elements of the revolution and confronted various problems


  1. chaotic infighting in the revolution, which was supposed to be managed – by a new structure. The Supreme Military Command set up in Dec. 2012


  1. continuing difficulties in obtaining heavy weaponry.


The US provided $26 million by 2013 and a total of $80 million in nonlethal assistance was promised, but not provided. As President Obama turned the question over to Congress to argue over sending weapons to the rebels, when he must have known they would balk, many experts thought he and his advisors wanted the FSA to be strong enough to prevent Assad from victory, but not able to prevail, thus requiring a political solution. A CIA program in Jordan was funded[i] but only for 1 ,000 to 3,000 troops; this is the program to be upgraded into a training for trainers effort to provide a force to fight ISIS and towards which some $4 billion is being reportedly allocated.


  1. Assad’s forces with Hizbullah and other militias managed, albeit with great difficulty – to recapture some areas (only three) – and the FSA’s battalions regrouped in various new alliances.


  1. The lessening of international pressure on Assad; the United Nations/Arab League special representative Lakhdar Brahimi declared his own mission a failure ; Obama’s brief threat against Syria for using sarin in attacks on August 25, 2013 was withdrawn as Russia negotiated that Syria to turn over its chemical weapons; and the meetings in Geneva last winter (’14) failed to produce any outcome.


  1. FSA leaders were involved in a sex scandal, gruesome videos and accused of war crimes even as thousands of photographs of Assad’s war crimes were obtained and shared in testimony to Congress by the mysterious Caesar, a Syrian defector .


  1. ISIS and Jabhat Nusra gained the most territory, while they together had had only about 10,000 troops last year, ISIS is now estimated by the CIA as being perhaps 30,000 (15,000) in Syria and 50,000 by Bill Roggio.  In January of 2014, a sub-war between ISIS and Jabhat Nusra, was launched, which did not result in ISIS’ defeat.


Reactions to the US-coalition launched war on ISIS and Nusra were being protested by rebels all over the country. Assad is presumably happy with the attacks on his foes, but unsure of the West’s next move.


Assad’s military’s dilemma, in Clausewitzian terms, is the diffusion of the conflicts’ center of gravity throughout the country, and his inability to extinguish the popular will for revolution.   The direct economic funding of the conflict is as crucial to his effort as it is to that of the revolutionaries. Whether the markets of violence, are or are not a determining factor, and merely a subsidiary aspect of the conflict remains to be seen.


[i] Yezid Sayigh. “Is Armed Rebellion on the Wane in Syria?” Carnegie Middle East Center, April 24, 21014.


Thoughts on the Proportion of Foreign Fighters in Syria

14 Sep

“Thoughts on the Proportion of Foreign Fighters in Syria “


Sherifa Zuhur   (please do not cite without permission, this is based on a chapter in an academic book on ‘markets of violence’ in the Syrian revolution.)


A plethora of media and ‘expert’ sources claim that ISIS’ numbers “may have” tripled – with the CIA’s estimate at 20,000 to 31,500 in Iraq and according to some, 50,000 (an exaggerated figure) in Syria.[1]   Last year, some sources claimed Jabhat Nusra and ISIS were no more than 7,000 to 10,000[2] (together), with only 5,000 “official” Nusra members (BBC), Nusra’s leaders claimed they have 15,000 or 20,000 troops. ISIS’ approximate size in 2013 was calculated at 5,000 to 6,000 fighters.[3]


Reasons given for the increase are a) an increase in foreign fighters, despite the fact that international authorities were alerted last year to the danger of foreign fighters returning to their own home countries and began serious review of travelers; or b) other fighters joining ISIS or tribes joining ISIS (a trend seen in Iraq, but not particularly in Syria although some tribes are participating).


Western media are using a figure of 12,000 (or 11,000) foreign fighters as of late summer 2014 in Syria – which means that the overall figure of 100,000 rebel fighters must have increased (despite a fairly high casualty rate). On Sept. 8, a figure was given of 3,000 fighters from Tunisia participating in the Syrian revolution  by Peter Neumann at ICSR at King’s College.[4]  Contrast this with a U.S. Congressional report said that U.S. intelligence had estimated 7,500 foreign fighters were in Syria as of February 2014.[5] Are nearly half the fighters, Tunisian? No. Then, how accurate are these assessments? And are we concerned about them as a determinant of the salafi-jihadists’ rapid growth?  Or as predictors of a campaign against salafi-jihadists (yes) and the probability of rebels overcoming Assad’s forces (yes) or at least holding their own?


Can we properly assess the size of salafi-jihadists’ forces as a whole (given that some include ‘nationalist salafis’ like Ahrar al-Sham, and some do not, and with claims that the Jaysh al-Islam, for example is at 50,000 alone). The ICSR had also claimed (in 2013) that foreign jihadists are only 10% of the opposition. Once again, the size of the revolution (‘insurgency’) is debated: the U.S. estimates 75,000 to as high as 115,000.[6]

Is the danger of blowback from foreign fighters being exaggerated, given that their primary goals are in Syria?  The al-Qa’ida movements have already given us a great deal of information about the reasons that foreign nationals join a global jihad movement in a particular local battle.

Let’s review some of the other information from last year:  Syria was already seen as a jihadist magnet more powerful than Afghanistan or Yemen, a year ago.[7] Analysts claimed, then that 40% to 80% of groups like Nusra and ISIS are foreign fighters, although identifications of slain fighters do not support such claims.[8]   Officials thought that perhaps 700 or 800 salafi-jihadists had traveled to Syria from Jordan and about 100 were killed there.[9] Numbers of Tunisian (600), Saudi Arabian[10], Libyan, and Iraqi fighters are significant. An estimated 100 Chechen fighters were in Syria.[11] The FBI has identified 100 American Muslims fighting in Syria, France had identified 150 French jihadists, and the Spanish government arrested Wahhabists in Ceuta who sent 50 fighters to Syria.[12] British authorities estimated that 200 UK nationals are fighting in Syria, but have only positively identified twenty;[13] and twenty Dutch fighters, mostly of Moroccan descent, were in Syria (with six killed) led by Abu Fida’a;[14] Swedish Security Services estimated 30 Swedes traveled to Syria to fight, and a senior security official claimed 80 Australians are fighting in Syria, perhaps 20 with Jabhat al-Nusra.[15] At least 40 Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) fighters have fought in Syria[16]; out of perhaps 100 Pakistani fighters in Syria. The TTP leaders run a network with Lashkar e-Jhangvi bringing militants to Syria,[17] who likely fought with Hafiz Gul Bahadur group members in the Katibat Muhajirun in Latakia under Abu Jafar al-Libi. An ISIS video from July 2013 showed 10 to 20 TTP fighters in Syria,[18] and 30 slain Pakistani fighters’ bodies were returned to Pakistan in September.[19] Anywhere from “several” to 50 Indonesians are thought to be in Syria.[20] The Katibat Taliban (KaT) who fight the Kurdish-Syrian PYD were reportedly paid an initial sum equal to $1000.[21] (I am looking at the economic aspects of the fighting elsewhere, in a book on the political economy of conflicts in Arab tates).


Although many of governments put measures in place to apprehend those traveling to Syria, jihadists have succeeded in traveling like a Saudi engineer, who left his job to join the jihad,[22] al-Sharikh (Sanafi al-Nasr), a cousin of Osama bin Ladin, who formerly fought in Chechnya and Afghanistan, and Abu `Awan al-Shamani who set off a Nusra suicide bomb at the French hospital in Aleppo.[23] Saudi Arabia has arrested jihadists on their return from Syria; 1,200 had traveled to Syria by 2013 [24] and now estimates are at anywhere from 1,500 to 2,500.

The Tunisian Minister of Interior offered the number of 2,400 fighters in June of 2014, without specifying any sources. [25]  Unclear numbers of Libyans are fighting in Syria, having undergone training in Libya.

Some claim 600 foreign fighters were killed in Syria in the first half of 2013. That is a fairly small proportion of rebels killed as a whole. However, the website Syrian Martyrs had only documented 326 foreign fighters deaths by June of 2014 (and this source documents deaths even when identification by name is not made).


Lest we forget, there are at least 10,000 foreign Shi`i fighters in Syria as well – and again these are estimated numbers. And we might remember that the Hizbullah and other Shi`i fighters are also hostile to a democratic way of life, have slaughtered Syrian civilians, and yet, they are not the subject of the current frenzy of concern over foreign fighters.


With the dramatic beheadings of U.S. journalists and a U.K. aid worker in Syria, it is difficult not to exaggerate the overall threat to the West, and recall that the context of these fighting groups and others, as well as a non-violent revolutionary movement is the effort to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.    From this brief review, we may deduce that if the higher numbers of foreign fighters are correct, the size of the revolutionary forces is higher than estimated (or at the high end of current estimates).



[1]New York Post, September 12, 2014 .


[2] Noman Benotman and Roisin Blake. “Jabhat al-Nusra lil-Ahl al-Sham min Mujahedin al-Sham fi Sahat al-Jihad.” Strategic Briefing. Qulliam Foundation, n.d. Estimates 5,000. An estimate of 6,000 to 7,000 is given by Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. “”The Al Nusra Front.” September, 23, 2013,

The group was established in 2012, claimed to double with new recruits including jihadists returning from Iraq, or traveling from overseas.


[3] “Al Qaeda’s Syrian Strategy.” Foreign Policy, October, 10, 2013.


[4] ABC News, September 8, 2014.


[5] Remarks by James R. Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, to the Senate Armed Services Committee, February 11, 2014.


[6] Congressional Research Service. “Armed Conflict in Syria.” June 27, 2014, 3.


[7] Kristina Wong, “Foreign Fighters Surpass Afghan-Soviet War, Storm Syria in Record Numbers,” Washington Times, October 20, 2013.


[8] These can be obtained on a daily basis, when they are identified (identification is not always possible) via the Local Coordination Committees in Syria of the SOHR.


[9] Interview with Mohammed al-Shalabi, a Jordanian Salafi-jihadi leader, on August 9, 2013, see Suha Philip Ma’ayeh. “Jordanian Jihadists Active in Syria.” Countering Terrorism Sentinel, October 24, 2013.; “10 Salafists Enter Aleppo Through Turkey,” al-Ghad, October 7, 2013; Muwaffaq Kamal,  “The Salafi Jihadi Denies Establishing a Murabitoon Brigade,” al-Ghad, September 23, 2013; “Teenage Jordanian ‘Jihadist’ Killed in Syria,” Jordan Times, February 28, 2013; Hassan Tammimi, “Jordanian Salafi from Rusaifa Killed in Syria,” al-Ghad, August 4, 2013.


[10] John Kerry inaccurately claimed there were no Saudi Arabian fighters in Syria in June of 2013, despite the reported death of a Nusra commander, Kasura al-Jazrawi in May 2013. CNS June 25, 2013.   In October, 2013, the Mufti of Saudi Arabia issued a statement to discourage Saudi engagement in jihad in Syria even as 16 year old Moath al-Hamili arrived to fight. Global Voices, October 1, 2013.


[11] “Битва за Ичкерию перекинулась на Сирию,” Kommersant, July 26, 2013


[12] Newsweek, October 25, 2013.


[13] Jenny Cuffe, “Who Are the British Jihadists in Syria?” BBC News, October 15, 2013.


[14] Samar Batrawi, “The Dutch Foreign Fighter Contingent in Syria.” CTC Sentinel, October 24, 2013.


[15]Per Gudmundson, “The Swedish Foreign Fighter Contingent in Syria.” CTC Sentinel, September 24, 2013; Zammit, Andrew. “Tracking Australian Foreign Fighters in Syria.” CTC Sentinel, November 26, 2013.


[16] Zia Ur Rahman, “Pakistani Fighters Joining the War in Syria.” CTC Sentinel, [Countering Terrorism Center] September 24, 2013.


[17] Ahmed Wali Mujeeb, “Pakistan Taliban ‘Sets up a Base in Syria,’” BBC, July 12, 2013; Maria Golovnina and Jibran Ahmad, “Pakistan Taliban Set Up Camps in Syria, Join Anti-Assad War,” Reuters, July 14, 2013.


[18] “Video Confirms Pakistani Taliban’s Presence In Syria,” The Middle East Media Research Institute, August 1, 2013.


[19] Aqeel Yousafzai, “Taliban se muzakraat Hukmaran band gali mai,” Hum Shehri [Lahore], September 9-15, 2013.


[20] AP News. “For Indonesian Jihadists: Civil War in Syria Beckons.” January 10, 2014.

[22] Shown here after shooting rabbits in the desert, a favorite male pastime. “Mudir “Kahraba tarbiyya” yiktib “wastaituhu”wa ghadir ila Suriyya,al-Sabq 10/7/2013.


[23] Aaron Y. Zelin, “The Saudi Foreign Fighter Presence in Syria.” CTC Sentinel, April 28, 2014


[24] Fahd al-Dhiyabi, “Saudi Interior Ministry Says 25 Percent of Fighters in Syria Have Returned,” Asharq Alawsat, March 24, 2014.


[25] Al Arabiyya, 23 June 2014.


Interview with Dr. Sherifa Zuhur following the Election of Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi as President

6 Jun

I was recently interviewed for MENA (Middle East News Agency). I have requested, but not yet received a link to whatever is published.


Sherifa Zuhur, IMEISS   Interview given to Ahmed Bahaa  on June 5, 2014.

Q. After the official declaration of Abdelfatah El- Sisi winning presidential elections, do you think that the call for reconciliation in Egypt is in favor of him or against him?

**This question is not clear. Do you mean “the call for a reconciliation with the Muslim Brotherhood?” With the Ansar Bayt Maqdis and other groups attacking the government? Is there a concrete group calling for reconciliation?

  1. I do not believe that the issue of reconciliation with the Muslim Brotherhood – if that is what you mean — is first on the list of Egypt’s priorities at the moment. My sense is that a majority of Egyptians at present do not want any reconciliation with the banned Muslim Brotherhood, and that it was the public which insisted (for most of autumn 2013) that the transitional government enact a ban, rather than the other way around. Therefore I don’t think those external observers, such as U.S. neoconservatives or think tanks, which have opposed the new government like Carnegie or Middle East Institute or those writing for CFR’s Foreign Policy have any reason to order the Egyptian public or government to “reconcile.” Obviously, there are also some Egyptians who have been involved in demonstrations at universities and who protest the exclusion of the Muslim Brotherhood, but they are not numerically large, nor can they claim a moral high ground after so many instances of unnecessary violence which hurt and terrified their fellow Egyptians.


Last summer, in the midst of the crisis at the end of June 2013, Field Marshal al-Sisi, then the Minister of Defense made at least three efforts to mediate with President Morsi and via him to the General Guidance Council of the MB. They rejected all of those efforts which might have resulted in a compromise government following new elections.   In some areas of Egypt, such as Kafr al-Dawwar, Menya, and most notably the Sinai supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood (or in the Sinai, their extremely violent allies) are still threatening others and trying to coerce them – in the Sinai, this remains an extremely volatile situation.


  1. How do you see the future of American-Egyptian relations in the light of El-Sisi’s as president and, will he focus on enhancing Egypt’s relations with Russia to put pressure on America?

A. I was asked about the announced Egyptian-Russian deal whereby financing was to be provided from the Gulf states a few months ago. After the usual round of reprintings, this particular story went silent.

President Putin was among the first of the world leaders to congratulate President al-Sisi on his electoral win. Apart from that gesture, I don’t think Egypt will overturn its long-term relationship with the United States for Russia, nor would it particularly pressure the United States if Egypt were to obtain weaponry or defense systems from Russia. Diplomatically, it is wise for Egypt to build ties of cooperation and friendship with many countries and not solely with the United States.

So long as US Muslim organizations filled with Muslim Brotherhood supporters or Americans who believe they and only they hold the key to democratic development are pressuring members of the U.S. Congress to hold off on approving elements in U.S. military aid to Egypt, we can’t be sure what either government will decide to do. Given that John Kerry, the U.S. Secretary of State is also very convinced of Egypt’s importance as a regional ally, I would be very surprised if Egyptian-American relations do not improve as the country carries out parliamentary elections and President al-Sisi embarks on his tasks over the next year.


  1. Will El-sisi succeed in fighting corruption which is represented in deep state or “Mubarak’s” state?

A. Egypt is no longer “Mubarak’s state.” I do not agree with the theory that the “deep state” lives on its own and has been unaffected by the revolution and subsequent governments. Also, no-one can say at this moment what will or will not be achieved. President al-Sisi’s (and I would appreciate it if you would kindly retain his title when you print my remarks, and not put “al-Sisi” alone) first and most difficult task is actually to restart Egypt’s economic engine. Promoting transparency, or preventing corruption is something that must be put into place in every department of every ministry. As the government is also a very large employer of many poorly paid functionaries, the issue of fighting corruption is also one of making certain that people – public and private employees – can make ends meet.

As for the high-level sort of corruption that you may be suggesting, which is very difficult even for countries like the U.S. to track and regulate, here too, guidelines and better practices must be implemented.


  1. How do you see the future of El-Nour salafist party in the light of the new constitution which forbids religious parties? And will it continue to support El-Sisi?

The al-Nour party has managed to subvert the intent of not allowing religious parties by promoting religious principles for social life, and declaring that political life will remain guided by a civil state. Its agenda is obviously similar to the da`wah of the Muslim Brotherhood and to convince others to adopt the same principles. But, here again, we see that the religious right in many countries are involved in politics usually supporting those who agree with their principles. I imagine the al-Nour party will continue to support the current government because they have pledged to do so.  Many of President al-Sisi’s supporters who want Egypt to abide by its civil tradition are very concerned by the salafis, including al-Nour. Certain issues will probably divide them, once the as yet unelected legislative assembly begins to do its work.


  1. Do you expect that El-sisi will release the activists detained recently?

A. I do not know. I understand that the judiciary is fiercely pressing for its own independence. But I personally think it would be wise to

a) fine the al-Jazeera journalists for their lack of proper permits — if it was the case that they were in lieu of these, and drop charges of conspiracy

b) to provide amnesties to those protesters who have not engaged in violent actions.

Traditionally Ramadan has been a period when amnesties were offered in other countries, where admittedly, circumstances differed.

Election Season in Egypt – Sherifa Zuhur

28 May

Considering that for 308 consecutive days, Egyptians have been threatened with bombings, or bombs were found and defused, attacks by gunmen have threatened police and army officers, students in support of the Muslim Brotherhood at various universities challenged the protest law with less-than-peaceful protests, they nonetheless went to the polls and voted for Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi or his opponent Hamdeen Sabahy.   This demonstrated a substantial measure of public trust that authorities will protect them.   The sky is blue. The Muslim Brotherhood are unable to sweep in and carry out assassinations as they had promised.

The foreign media have tried their best to hammer home a series of negative attacks on al-Sisi, aided by some in Egypt who fear a return to the military-influenced and authoritarian governments of Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak.  Or who simply want to get along well with their editors.

As the elections began, the  narrative tchanged in the foreign media and to some degree in the Egyptian media. Suddenly the focus was on turnout. If a turnout of 40% of registered voters weren’t reached, then they wouldn’t be successful.  Media personalities used their most dramatic voices to tell Egyptians to go to the polls.

Egyptians, on the other hand, know that voting is optional. It could be made mandatory as in certain countries. And they know that a far larger number of voters support al-Sisi than support Sabahy. And it has been very hot in the day hours, approximately 101-102 degrees F.

The leftists, and boycotters (yes there was a boycott, mainly consisting of supporters of the April 6th movement which had for its own reasons allied with the Muslim Brotherhood – and what is left of the MB’s support) compared this election with the 2012 race between Morsi and Shafik, in which Morsi won by only 800,000 votes.

Perhaps they forgot that a lot of Egyptians were quite unhappy with the choice between Morsi and Shafik, opting for one or the other as the least-bad option, as people tend to in democracies where the candidates for president are limited to two on the final round.

Egypt’s Presidential Election Committee decided to extend the elections for a third day and for a variety of reasons. One may concern the fact that in order to satisfy foreign election observer teams, this time around, Egyptians who work far away from their homes were not permitted to vote at polling places where they work. There were 2 days of vacation from work in 2012, and not only one.   Still, it was surprising to see the foreign media and even election observers like Democracy International complain that extending voting to a third day compromised the fairness of the election. The two campaigns also complained – clearly, everyone desires a fully transparent election process – were voters who voted on the first day disadvantaged if they did not know they had a third day to vote? – (but one which should also be fair to voters.)

I received a fair number of media requests requiring me to repeat everything I have already said about Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi when he studied at the U.S. Army War College (and a fair number of vicious personal attacks, some by people I had considered friends for being somehow personally responsible for his candidacy! )


Here are a few pictures from the elections which show that there were queues (that’s ‘lines’ in Americanese)  I decided to post just these few (there are more in my Twitter Feed) as Richard Spencer of the Telegraph claimed there weren’t any, he didn’t see any on TV, plenty of state TV stations showed empty polls, etc. and as I began sending these photos to him, he made it clear they don’t matter.  The narrative is all that matters.

Now at the end of the day, Egyptians lining up to vote at their elections DO matter along with  hope and pleasure in their faces.امبارح_14_مليون_والنهاردة_عاوزين_نكمل__30مليون?src=hash



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