Syria Update, October 13, 2012 (Institute of Middle Eastern, Islamic and Strategic Studies. By Sherifa Zuhur)
Current death toll: 95.
Revised death toll for Friday: 180
Although the international community is not outraged (apparently) over civilian deaths in Syria, tensions with that country and Turkey have seemingly opened a discussion about international conflict. http://www.egyptindependent.com/opinion/will-turkey-go-war-against-assad-regime
Aleppo province: Fierce clashes were fought in and near the Ummayad mosque of Aleppo today. The opposition shot down a Syrian aircraft used for military operations today in Aleppo province: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnhap_R37ww&feature=player_embedded
The jet had been bombarding the village of Khan al-Asal.
Damascus province: Clashes between the opposition and the Syrian military took place in al-Asali and in the Bor Sa`id area of al-Qadam which was shelled by regime forces. Two burnt bodies were found in a car in al-Qadam. The Syrian opposition captured the air defense base at al-Atibah. A car bomb explosion killed 8 civilians, including a young girl and two women, and 13 others were critically injured. The explosion took place at Al-Nabak on the road fromEight civilians, including a young girl and two women, were killed and 13 others critically injured by a car bomb blast in Al-Nabak on the road linking Damascus to Homs. The opposition took over an air defence base near the town of al-Eteiba following eight hours of clashes with the Syrian military there, killing at least 15 Syrian military troops and 6 opposition fighters. The bodies of two brothers killed in Ein Terma were discovered this morning. They were killed during the Syrian military campaign to retake the area.
Dara`a province: Syrian military shelling of the town of Tams killed at least 3. Clashes were ongoing outside of Ma`ra and also took place on the Damascus-Dara`a highway near the town of Seida.
Deir az-Zur province: Syrian military shelling on the al-Jbeila neighborhood killed an opposition commander. An opposition fighter was killed during clashes in the al-Mwathfin neighbourhood.
Homs province: The Syrian opposition captured the air defense base at Air Foul. Clashes took place there since the morning. Fierce clashes were fought in Bab Houd and Bab al-Turkman. The Syrian military shelled the areas of Old Homs and the neighborhood of al-Khaldiyya. The Syrian military shelled and tried to take over the city of al Quseir killing 2.
Idlib province: The Syria military is attempting to retake the town of Ma`arat al-Nu`man held by the opposition for about a week. Today it shelled the town with warplanes killing three civilians and two other men. About 40 military vehicles wait 10 kilometers outside of the town including 10 tanks, 4 wheel-drive vehicles and buses. The Syrian military executed 8 members of the same family in Heish. Opposition The Syrian military shelled the villages of al-Amriya, Sarmin, Kafar Muzda , Kafar Sanja, Heish, Jbala, Mouqa, Khan Shaukhoun, al-Rekaya and al-Habit. As of yesterday the opposition had captured more than 256 Syrian military troops during the week-long clashes in Khirbet al-Joz.
Borders: More than two dozen Syrians were injured late on Saturday when Syrian military forces opened fire on a group of some 400 refugees attempting to flee to Jordan.
Among the injured were four men who suffered burns and shrapnel wounds after a missile attack on the group.
Syria has announced that it is banning Turkish civilian flights over its territory apparently as a revenge practice after Turkey downed a civilian Syrian Arab Airlines flight which was carrying illegal ammunition into Syria from Russia.
International: U.N-Arab League peace envoy Lakhdar Brahimi will visit Baghdad on Monday for talks with Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki over the 19-month uprising in Syria.
Turkish prime minister Tayyip Erdogan rebuked the U.N. Security Council for its inaction in Syria likening the situation to that in Bosnia in the 1990’s, specifically Srebenica. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/13/syria-crisis-idUSL5E8LD4O620121013?type=marketsNews
Here are yesterday’s statements regarding the U.N. Security Council
Selected Bibliography on Syria (from my book, The Middle East: Politics, History and Neonationalism IMEISS, 2005)
Abdullah, U. I. The Islamic Struggle in Syria. Berkeley: Mizan Press, 1983.
Abu Khalil, `Asad. “Syria and the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” Current History. Vol. 93, 1994.
Avi-Ran, Reuven. The Syrian Involvement in Lebanon since 1975. Boulder, Col.: Westview, 1991.
Batatu, Hanna. “Some Observations on the Social Roots of Syria’s Ruling Military Group and the Causes for its Dominance.” Middle East Journal. Vol. 35, 1981.
_________. “Syria’s Muslim Brethren.” Middle East Reports. Vol. 12. No. 110, November-December, 1982.
_________. Syria’s Peasantry, The Descendants of Its Lesser Rural Notables, and Their Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Betts, Robert B. The Druze. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Blecher, Robert. “History as Social Critique in Syrian Film: Muhammad Malas’ al-Leil and Ryad Chaia’s al-Lajat.” Middle East Report. No. 204, July-September, 1997.
Clawson, Patrick. Unaffordable Ambitions: Syria’s Military Build-up and Economic Crisis. Washington D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1989.
Davis, Uri. “Citizenship Legislation in the Syrian Arab Republic.” Arab Studies Quarterly. Vol. 18, No. 1, Winter 1996.
Devlin, John. The Ba`th Party: A History from Its Origins to 1966. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1976.
Drysdale, Alasdair. “The Succession Question in Syria.” Middle East Journal. Vol. 39, No. 2, 1985.
Drysdale, Alasdair and Hinnebusch, Raymond. Syria and the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1991.
Early, Evelyn. “Poetry and Pageants: Growing up in the Syrian Vanguard.” In Children in the Muslim Middle East. Edited by Elizabeth Fernea. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.
Gelvin, James. “The Social Origins of Popular Nationalism in Syria: Evidence for a New Framework.” International Journal of Middle East Studies. Vol. 26, No. 4, 1994.
_________. Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Hinnebusch, Raymond. Authoritarian Power and State Formation in Ba’thist Syria: Army, Party and Peasant. Boulder, Col.: Westview, 1990.
__________. “State and Civil Society in Syria.” Middle East Journal. Vol. 47, No.2, Spring 1993.
__________. “State, Civil Society and Political Change in Syria.” In Civil Society in the Middle East. Edited by Augustus R. Norton. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Hopfinger, Han and Boeckler, Marc. “Step by Step to an Open Economic System: Syria Sets Course for Liberalization.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. Vol. 23, No. 2, November 1996.
Hopwood, Derek. Syria, 1945-1986: Politics and Society. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988.
Kanovsky, Eliahu. “Syria’s Troubled Economic Future.” Middle East Quarterly. Vol. 4, No. 2, June 1997.
Kaplan, Robert. “Syria — Identity Crisis.” The Atlantic. Vol. 271, February, 1993.
Kayali, Ghalib. Hafiz al-Assad: Qa’id wa risala. Damascus, 1977.
Kedar, Mordechai. “The Public Political Language of the Asad Regime in Syria: Messages and Means of Communication.” Ph.D. dissertation. Bar-Ilan University, 1998.
Khoury, Philip. Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920-1945. Princeton: Princeton University, 1987.
_________. “A Reinterpretation of the Origins and Aims of the Great Syrian Revolt 1925-1927.” In Arab Civilization: Challenges, Responses, Studies in Honor of Constantine Zurayk. Edited by George Atiyeh and Ibrahim Oweiss. Albany: State University of New York, 1988.
_________. “Syrian Political Culture.” In Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity. Edited by Richard T. Antoun and Donald Quataert. Albany: State University of New York, 1991.
_________. “Syrian Urban Politics in Transition: The Quarters of Damascus during the French Mandate.” In The Modern Middle East. Edited by Albert Hourani, Philip Khoury, Philip and Mary Wilson. Berkeley: University of California, 1993.
Kienle, Eberhard. Ba’th versus Ba’th. The Conflict Between Syria and Iraq, 1968-1989. London: I.B. Tauris, 1990.
Kienle, Eberhard, ed. Contemporary Syria: Economic Liberalization between Cold War and Cold Peace. London: British Academic Press, 1994.
Lawson, Fred. “External versus Internal Pressures for Liberalization in Syria and Iraq.” Journal of Arab Affairs. Vol. 11, No. 1, 1992.
_________. “Domestic Transformation and Foreign Steadfastness in Contemporary Syria.” Middle East Journal. Vol. 48, Winter 1994.
Lobmeyer, Hans. “Islamic Ideology and Secular Discourse. The Islamists of Syria.” Orient. Vol. 32, 1991.
Longuenesse, Elisabeth. “The Syrian Working Class Today.” Middle East Report. Vol. 15, No. 134, July-August 1985.
Ma’oz, Moshe. Ottoman Reform in Syria and Palestine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.
__________. “Alawi Military Officers in Syrian Politics.” In The Military and State in Modern Asia. Edited by H.Z. Schiffrin. Jerusalem: Academic Press, 1976.
__________. Asad, Sphinx of Damascus. London: Weldenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.
Ma’oz, Moshe and Yaniv, Avner, eds. Syria under Assad: Domestic Constraints and Regional Risks. New York: St. Martin’s 1986.
Mardam Bey, Salma. Syria’s Quest for Independence. Reading: Ithaca, 1994.
Mayer, Thomas. “The Islamic Opposition in Syria 1961-1982.” Orient. Vol. 24, 1983.
Middle East Watch Committee, eds. Syria Unmasked: The Suppression of Human Rights by the Regime. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
Moosa, Matti. “Naqqash and the Rise of the Native Arab Theater in Syria.” Journal of Arabic Literature, 3, 1972.
Muslih, Muhammad. “The Golan: Israel, Syria and Strategic Considerations.” Middle East Journal. Vol. 47, 1993.
Omar, Saleh. “Philosophical Origins of the Arab Ba’th Party: The Work of Zaki al-Arsuzi.” Arab Studies Quarterly. Vol. 18, No. 2, Spring 1996.
Perthes, Volker. “The Bourgeoisie and the Ba’th.” Middle East Report. 21, No. 3, May-June 1991.
__________. The Political Economy of Syria Under Asad. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995.
__________. “Si Vis Stabilatatem, Para Bellum: State Building, National Security and War Preparation in Syria.” In War, Institutions and Social Change in the Middle East. Edited by Steven Heydemann. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Qudsi, Safwan. al-Batal wa al-tarikh. Qira’a fi fikr Hafiz al-Asad al-siyasi. Damascus: Dar Tlas, 1984.
Rabinovich, Itamar. Syria Under the Ba’th. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press and New York: Halstead, 1972.
Rathmell, Andrew. Secret War in the Middle East: The Covert Struggle for Syria, 1949-1961. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 1995.
Raymond, André. La Syrie d’aujourd’hui. Paris: CNRS, 1980.
Roberts, David. The Ba’th and the Creation of Modern Syria. London: Croom Helm, 1987.
Russell, Malcolm. The First Modern Arab State: Syria under Faysal 1918-1920. Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1985.
Sadowski, Yahya. “Patronage and the Ba’th: Corruption and Control in Contemporary Syria.” Arab Studies Quarterly. Vol. 9, No. 4, 1987.
Schami, Rafik. Damascus Nights. Trans. by Philip Boehm. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1993.
Seale, Patrick. The Struggle for Syria: A Study of Post-War Arab Politics 1945-1958. London: I.B. Tauris, 1986.
________. Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Seurat, Michel. L’État de barbarie. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1989.
al-Sharif, Samim. al-Musiqa fi Suriya: A`lam wa tarikh. Damascus: Wizarat al-Thaqafa wa al-Irshad, 1991.
Sluglett, Peter and Farouk-Sluglett, Marion. “The Application of the 1858 Land Code in Greater Syria: Some Preliminary Observations.” In Tarif Khalidi, ed. Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East. Beirut: American University in Berut, 1984.
Sultan, `Ali. Tarikh Suriya. Vol. 1 (1908-1918) and Vol. 2 (1918 – 1920). Damascus: Dar al-Tlas, 1987.
Tauber, Eliezer. The Formation of Modern Syria and Iraq. Ilford, Essex, England and Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1995.
Thompson, Elizabeth. “The Climax and Crisis of the Colonial Welfare State in Syria and Lebanon during World War II.” In War, Institutions and Social Change in the Middle East. Edited by Steven Heydemann. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Tibawi, Abdul Latif. A Modern History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine. London: Macmillan and New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969.
Tlass, Mustafa. L’histoire politique de la Syrie contemporaine, 1918-1990. Mustafa Tlass, Joseph Hajjar. Damascus: Dar al-Tlas, 1993.
Torrey, Gordon N. Syrian Politics and the Military 1945-1958. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964.
Van Dam, Nikolaos. The Struggle for Power in Syria: Sectarianism, Regionalism and Tribalism in Politics, 1961 – 1980. London: Croom Helm, 1981.
Watenpaugh, Keith. “Middle Class Modernity and the Persistence of the Politics of the Notables.” International Journal of Middle East Studies. Vol. 35, Number 2, May 2003.
Wedeen, Lisa. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Weulersse, Jacques. Le pays des Alouites. Vol. 1 Tours: 1940.
__________. Paysans de Syrie et du Proche-Orient. Paris: Gallimard, 1946.
Zisser, Eyal. “The Syrian Army: Between the Domestic and the External Fronts.” Middle East Review of International Affairs. Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2001.
Zuhur, Sherifa. “Bashar al-Assad.” In the Encyclopedia of the Arab Israeli Conflict, Edited by Spencer Tucker, Santa Barbara and London: ABC-Clio, 2008
Zuhur, Sherifa. “Syria: Haven for Terrorists?” Unmasking Terror: A Global Review of Terrorist Activities. Vol. 2 Jamestown: Jamestown Foundation, 2005.
Zuhur, Sherifa. “Syria: From Arab Nationalists to a Security Services State.” In Zuhur, The Middle East: Politics, History and Neonationalism. Philadelphia: Institute of Middle Eastern, Islamic and Diasporic Studies, 2005.